bio 111

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bio 111
2015-02-27 19:41:50
endocrine organs structures

endocrine system
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  1. what are the four ways cells communicate with each other
    • gap junctions
    • neurotransmitters
    • paracrines
    • hormones
  2. join single unit smooth muscle cardiac and epithelial and other cells to each other
    gap junctionions
  3. these are released by neurons diffuse across a narrow synaptic cleft and bind to recepots on the surface of the next cell
  4. these are secreted into the tissue fluid by a cell, diffuse to nearby cells in the same tissue and stimulate there physisology sometimes called local hormomes
  5. these are chemical messengers that are secreted into the bloodstream and stimulate the physiology of cells in another tissue or organ often a considerable distance away
  6. this is suspended from the hypothalamus by a stalk called the infundibulum and housed in the sella turcia of the sphenoid bone
    pituitary gland
  7. anterior three quarters of the pituitary
  8. the anterior lobe of the adenohypophysis is also called the
    pars distalis
  9. the anterior pituitary has no nerve connection to the hypothalamus but is connected by a complex of blood vessels called the
    hypophyseal portal system
  10. this constitutes the posterior one quarter of the pituitary. it has three parts:median eminence the stalk and the pars nervosa
    it is not a true gland
  11. nerve fibers arise from cell bodies in the hypothalamus, travel down the stalk as a bundle called the
    hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract
  12. pine coned shape growth on the roof of the third ventricle of the brain, beneath the posterior end of the corpus callosum.
    pineal gland
  13. produces serotonin and melatonin
    pineal gland
  14. is located in the mediastinum superior to the heart
  15. largest endocrine gland wrapped around the anterior and lateral aspect of the trachea connected isthmus
    thyroid gland
  16. this is partially embedded in the posterior surface of the thyroid. usually 4 of them.
    is secretes a hormone
    parathyroid gland
  17. this sits like a cap on the superior pole of each kidney.
    adrenal supraenal gland
  18. sympathetic ganglion
    lacks dendrites and axons
    works with the sympathetic nervous system
    adrenal medulla
  19. has three layers of grandular tissue;
    adrenal cortex
  20. this organ is located inferior and dorsal to the stomach
    gland is retroperitoneal
    exocrine digestive gland
  21. what organ is endo and exocrine
  22. what produces sperm and eggs
    is both endo and exo
    produces hormones and sterioids
  23. ducts carry secretions to body surface or other organ cavity
    extravellular effect
    exocrine glands
  24. no ducts releases hormones into the tissue fluid
    dense capillary network to distribute hormones
    intracellular effects
    alter target cell metabolism  
    endocrine glands
  25. derived from cholesterol
  26. OT & ADH
    all releasing and inhibiting hormones of the hypothalamus
    most of the anterior pituitary hormones
    peptides and gylcoprotiens
  27. derived from amino acids
    catecholamines: norepi epi dopamine & thyroid hormones
  28. regulates primitiave functions from water balance to sex drive
    functions carried out by pituitary gland
  29. involved in mineral metabolism
    parathyroid glands
  30. carbohydrate and sodium+ metabolism sex hormones
    outer cortex of adrenal gland
  31. activated by sunlight
    regulates circadian rhythm
    pineal gland
  32. formed during the ovarian cycle
    corpus leuteum
  33. formed during pregnancy
  34. ducts carry secretions to body surface
  35. no ducts hormones into tissue fluid dense capillary network
  36. anterior lobe of hypothalmus
  37. posterior lobe of hypothalmus
  38. this organs functions are carried out by the pituitary gland
  39. location bottom of third ventricle
    connected to endocrine system
  40. influences hr bp resp rate GI mobility pupils 
    fear loathing pleasure sex drive regulates body temp
  41. regulation of food intake, water balance and thrist, sleep wake cycle, hormonal control, 

    *releases hormones that influence hormonal secretion from anterior pituitary 

    releases oxytocin and vasopressin 
  42. pars distalis 
    pars intermedia
    pars tuberalis
    anterior pituitary
  43. pars nervosa
    posterior pituitary
  44. PRL
    pars distalis hormones
  45. increases metabolic activity
    carbohydrate to amino acids 
    moblization of fats 
    increase in tissue mass
    growth and repair process
    *glucose sparing effect
    growth hormone
  46. increase osteoblastic activity and appositional growth affecting bone thickening and remodeling
    growth hormone
  47. higher durring first 2 hours of deep sleep after high protein meal and after exercise
    growth hormone
  48. targets thyroid
    stimulates uptake of iodine 
    affects basal metabolic rate 
    thyroid stimulating hormone
  49. targets adrenal cortex
    regulates response to stress
    secretion of corticosteriods that regulate glucose fat protein and metabloism
    adrenocorticiotpic hormone ACTH
  50. targets the ovarian follicle 
    development of ovum 
    results in release of estrogen
    follicle stimulating hormone
  51. in males stimulates activity in the sertoli cells
    follicle stimulating hormone
  52. targets the corpus leuteum 
    works with FSH to complete development of follicle adn induce ovulation
    leutinizing hormone
  53. causes the leuteum to secrete estrogen and progesterone
  54. in males it targest the intersitital cells 
    secretes testosterone
  55. gonadotropins are controlled by
  56. females milk synthesis after delivery 
    in males increases LH which increases testoesterone secretion
    prolactin PRL
  57. absent in adult humans only in fetus
    pars intermedia
  58. produced in hypothalmus transported down to posterior lobe 
    regualtes water reabsorbtion 
    targets kidneys to increase water retention 
    posterior pituitary
    ADH antidiurtetic hormone
  59. targets smooth muscles of the uterus 
    has role in delivery of fetus 
    works with PRL to initiate lactation
    OT oxytocin
  60. insuffcident iodone and thyroxine
    hyposecretion of TSH
  61. goiter overstimulation of thyroid
    hypersecretion of TSH
  62. insufficient reabsorbtion of water hyposecretion of ADH
    diabetes insipidis
  63. increase bodys metablic rate and o2 consumption, calorigenic effect heat production 
    heart rate and contraction strength resp rate 
    stimulates appetite breadown of carbo, lipids proteins
    thyroid gland
  64. produce calcitoin that decrease blood calcuium promotes calcium deposition and bone formation in children
    c cells
  65. calorigenic, growth & nervous system development, metabolic-protein catabolism, glycogenolysis, muscular--ATP interface
    effects of thyroxine
  66. targets bone and kidneys
    lower blood calcium 
    inhibits bone resorbtion 
    monitored by c cells
    TSH levels set rates of thyroxine synthesis and release
  67. increase blood calcium levels 
    targets bone and kidney
    increase abspor of calcium 
    decrease urinary excretion 
    increase bone resorption by targeting osteoclasts
    Parathyroid hormone
  68. comes from alpha in pancrease
  69. from beta in pancreas
  70. in liver and skeletal muscle 
    liver glycogen stored for the brain 
    muscle glycogen use locally
    glycogen synthesis
  71. used to synthesize ATP
  72. is needed to allow glucose to be absorbed into muscle and adipose cells
    • insulin 
    • insulin dependent tissues
  73. digestive (liver) RBC and nervous tissues dont require this to absorb glucose
    non insulin dependent tissue
  74. insulin stimulates adipose tissue to convert glucose to fat
  75. promotes absorption of amino acids
  76. prolonged fasting releases this hormone (cortisol) increases protein catabolism
  77. increases glycogen synthesis 
  78. increases glycogenolysis 
  79. zona glomerulosa
    adrenal cortex
  80. mineralcorticoids
  81. glucocorticoids
  82. sex steriods
  83. targets kidneys control electrolyte balance promotes sodium retention and potassium 
    • mineralcorticoids 
    • zona glomerulosa
  84. cortisol
    stimulates fat and protein catabolism 
    release of fatty acids and glucose into blood anti insulin effect 
    anti inflamitory effect
    • glucocorticoids 
    • zona facicualata
  85. essential for muscular activity 
    aid in RBC maintainence 
    nerve condiction 
    increase bodys resistance to stress
    • glucocorticoids 
    • faciulatata
  86. testosterone and estrogen secreted in small amounts in both sexes 
    masked by gonadal production 
    estrogen secretion becomes important after menopause
    • sex steroids 
    • zona reticularis
  87. stimulates the release of nor(epiephrine)
    hormonal effect is longer lasting 
    increase--bp and hr blood flow to skeletal muscle air flow 
    decrease0 digestion adn urine formation 
    stimulates gluconeogensis and glycogenolysis
    short duration sympathomimetic
    adrenal medulla