Chapter 1 Basic Anatomical Terms

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Chapter 1 Basic Anatomical Terms
2015-01-21 13:03:39

Chapter 1
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  1. What is anatomical position?
    Standing erect with face forward, UE at sides and palms facing forward
  2. Define supine and prone
    • Supine: lying face up
    • Prone: lying face down
  3. Define: Superior and inferior
    What are the other names for these?
    • Superior: Up (Cephalic)
    • Inferior: Down (Caudal)
  4. Define: Proximal, Distal
    • Proximal: nearest, usually close to attachment point of limbs
    • Distal: farther away from attachment point
  5. Define: Anterior and Posterior
    What are the other names for these?
    • Anterior: Front (Ventral)
    • Posterior: Back (Dorsal)
  6. Define: Medial and Lateral
    • Medial: towards midline
    • Lateral: away from midline
  7. What constitutes UE and LE
    • UE: arm, forearm, wrist, and hand
    • LE: thigh, leg, ankle, foot
  8. Define central region of body and thorax
    • Central region: head, neck, trunk
    • Trunk: thorax, abdomen, and pelvis
  9. What are the 4 quadrants of the abdomen?
    What are the 9 regions of the abdomen?
    RUQ, LUQ, RLQ, and LLQ

    R and L hypochondriac, epigastric, R and L lumbar, umbilical, R and L iliac, and hypogastric
  10. Define the 3 planes of the body
    • Sagittal: vertically, separates into R and L sides
    • Transverse: horizontal, separates into superior and inferior
    • Frontal or Coronal: vertical R -> L, separates into anterior and posterior; butterfly cut
  11. Organ planes
    • Longitudinal: cut through long axis of organ
    • Cross or transverse section: perpendicular to long axis
    • Oblique section: any other angle cut
  12. Body cavities in the trunk
    • Thoracic, abdominal and pelvic
    • Abdominal and pelvic not physically separated
  13. Thoracic cavity
    Surrounded by rib cage; separated from abd by diaphragm
  14. What is the mediastinum?
    • Separates thorax into R and L; contains heart, thymus, esophagus, and trachea.
    • Sternum to vertebral column, doesn't include lungs
  15. Abdominal Cavity
    Enclosed primarily by ab muscles; contains stomach, intestines, spleen, liver, pancreas, and kidneys
  16. Pelvic cavity
    Encased by pelvic bones; contains urinary bladder, part of colon and internal reproductive organs.
  17. Serous membranes
    Cover organs and line trunk cavities. "Fist in balloon". Fist= organ; inner balloon wall = visceral serous membrane; outer wall = parietal serous mambrane
  18. Which serous membrane is touching the organ and which one lines the cavity? What is the space b/w the two called?
    Visceral membrane is lining organ; Parietal lines cavity. Intermembrane space, filled with lubricating serous fluid to reduce friction.
  19. What 3 thoracic cavities are lined with serous membranes?
    Pericardial cavity and 2 pleural cavities.
  20. Pericardial cavity
    b/w visceral (covers heart) and parietal pericardium (covers visceral pericardium). Filled with pericardial fluid.
  21. Pleural cavity
    Visceral pleura covers lungs, parietal lines thoracic wall, lateral surfaces of mediastinum, and superior surface of diaphragm.
  22. What abdominal cavity is lined with serous membranes?
    Peritoneal cavity
  23. Peritoneal cavity
    Visceral peritonium covers organs, parietal periotonium covers inner wall of abdominopelvic cavity and inferior surface of diaphragm.
  24. Infection of Serous Membranes
    • Usually due to some sort of infection
    • 1) Pericarditis
    • 2) Pleurisy
    • 3) Peritonitis
  25. What are mesenteries?
    2 layers of peritonium fused together. Either visceral and parietal fused together or two visceral peritonium of different organs.
  26. What is the function of mesenteries?
    Supplies blood and nerves to organ; anchor organs to body wall
  27. Retroperitonium
    Posterior to peritonium; no mesentaries, covered by parietal peritonium; Kidneys, adrenal glands, pancreas, parts of intestines and urinary bladder