USMLE 16

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rere_girl4ever
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293493
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USMLE 16
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2015-01-22 12:58:54
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USMLE16
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  1. What causes Cachexia (anorexia, anemia, malaise, weight loss)?
    • TNF-alpha (a.k.a Cachectin)
    • IFN-gamma
    • IL-1
    • IL-6
  2. What is the function of Transforming Growth Factor- Beta (TGF-B)?
    • Inhibits inflammatory response
    • Decrease T cell proliferation and cytokine production.
  3. What is parathyroid hormone-related peptide and in which neoplasms is it produced?
    • Squamous cell lung carcinoma
    • Renal cell carcinoma
    • Breast cancer
    • Causes hypercalcemia
  4. In this disease, even after administration of high dose dextamethasone, there are still elevated levels of ACTH and cortisol.
    Ectopic ACTH secretion e.g small cell lung cancer
  5. What happens after administration of high dose dextamethasone in ectopic ACTH secretion?
    There will still be elevated levels of ACTH and cortisol.
  6. In this condition, after administration of low-dose dextamethasone, cortisol levels are suppressed.
    • This could be either:
    • Adrenal adenoma
    • Exogenous corticosteroids
  7. This this condition, even after administration of low-dose dextamethasone, there are still elevated levels of ACTH and cortisol.
    • This could be either:
    • Pituitary adenoma
    • Ectopic ACTH production
  8. In this diesase, after administration of high dose dextamethasone, ACTH and cortisol levels are suppressed.
    Pituitary adenoma
  9. What is the most common cancer in men (in the US)?
    • 1. Prostate
    • 2. Lung
    • 3. Colon/ rectum
  10. What is the most common cancer in women (in the US)?
    • 1. Breast
    • 2. Lung
    • 3. Colon/ rectum
  11. Which cancers have the highest mortality rate in men the US?
    • 1. Lung
    • 2. Prostate
    • 3. Colon/ rectum
  12. Which cancers have the highest mortality rate in women in the US?
    • 1. Lung
    • 2. Breast
    • 3. Colon/ rectum
  13. How does B activation and class/ isotype switching occur?
    • Interaction with CD40 receptor on activated B cells with CD40 ligand (CD154) on activated T cells. 
    • The T cell secretes cytokines that determine Ig class switching of B cell
  14. Where does B cell activation/ isotype class switching occur?
    In the germinal centers of the lymph node.
  15. Explain the Pupillary light reflex
    Light enters eye ⇨ Retina transmitts information via the optic nerve bilaterally to the Pretectal nucleus, located in the superior colliculus ⇨ Fibers project to the ipsilateral and contralateral Edwinger-Westphal nucleus ⇨ Parasympathetic preganglionic neurons in the E.W nucleus transmits the info via the occlumotor nerve to the cilliary ganglion. ⇨ They synapse with parasympathetic postganglionic neurons ⇨ Innervate sphincter of iris
  16. What happens when light is shone in the left eye with a damaged optic nerve?
    • Light shone in left eye with damaged optic nerve: No constriction with left and right eye
    • Light shone in right eye with no damage to optic nerve: Contriction in left with damaged optic nerve and in right
  17. Describe the findings in Carbon monoxide poisoning with respect to Hb concentration, PaO2 (dissolved O2), % Saturation, Total O2 content (both dissolved and O2 attached to Hb).
    • Hb concentration: Normal
    • PaO2 (dissolved O2):Normal
    • % Saturation: ↓ (CO competes with O2)
    • Total O2 content(both dissolved and O2 attached to Hb): 
  18. Describe the findings in Anemia/ chronic blood loss with respect to Hb concentration, PaO2 (dissolved O2), % Saturation, Total O2 content (both dissolved and O2 attached to Hb).
    • Hb concentration
    • PaO2 (dissolved O2): Normal
    • % Saturation: Normal
    • Total O2 content (both dissolved and O2 attached to Hb): ↓
  19. Describe the findings in Polycythemia with respect to Hb concentration, PaO2 (dissolved O2), % Saturation, Total O2 content (both dissolved and O2 attached to Hb).
    • Hb concentration: ↑
    • PaO2 (dissolved O2): Normal
    • % Saturation: Normal
    • Total O2 content(both dissolved and O2 attached to Hb): ↑
  20. Which non-glucose monosacchardie is metabolized the fastest?
    • Fructose. 
    • It bypasses phosphofructokinase-1, the rate limiting enzyme of glycolysis. 
    • Other sugars (e.g glucose, galactose, mannose enter glycolysis prior to PKF-1 and are metabolized more slowly.
  21. What are Nissl bodies?
    • A neurons Rough endoplasmic reticulum.
    • They synthesize peptide neurotransmitters for secretion.
  22. What kind of transport does kinesin participate in?
    • Anterograde transport- moves intracellular vesicles and organelles toward the plus (rapidly growing) ends of microtubules. 
    • Anterograde transport is usually directed away from the nucleus, down the axon, toward the nerve terminal.
  23. This type of microtubule motor protein participates in Anterograde transport.
    • Kinesin (- -> +)
    • Moves vesicles and organelles toward the plus (rapidly growing) ends microtubules.
    • Away from nucleus -> Down axon -> Nerve terminal.
  24. This microtubule motor protein transports this way: - -> +
    • Kinesin 
    • Anterograde transport.
  25. This microtubule motor protein transports this way: + -> -
    • Dyenin 
    • Retrograde transport
  26. What kind of transport does Dyenin participate in?
    • Retrograde transport.
    • Moves organelles toward the nucleus (+ -> -)
  27. What type of movement does Dyenin function in?
    Ciliary and flagellar movement
  28. What are the lengths of Microtubules, Intermediate filaments and Microfilaments in diameter?
    • Microtubules- 23 nm
    • Intermediate filaments- 8-10 nm
    • Microfilaments- 6 nm
  29. What are the MEN1 tumors?
    • Parathydoid
    • Pancreas
    • Pituitary
  30. What are the MEN2A tumors?
    • Parathyroid
    • Pheochromocytoma
    • Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid
  31. What are the MEN2B tumors?
    • Pheochromocytoma
    • Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid
    • Neuromas
  32. MEN2A and 2B are associated with a mutation in which gene?
    RET gene (codes for receptor tyrosine kinase)
  33. RET oncogene is associated with which tumors? What is its gene product?
    • MEN2A: Parathyroid, pheochromocytoma, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid
    • MEN2B: Pheochromocytoma, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, neuromas.
    • (codes for receptor tyrosine kinase)
  34. Where do parafollicular cells arise from?
    4th/ 5th pharyngeal pouches
  35. What forms the adrenal cortex?
    Mesoderm/ mesothelial cells
  36. What forms the adrenal medulla?
    Neural crest cells
  37. What are the effects of the gene product associated with von Hippel-Lindau disease?
    Inhibits hypoxia inducible factor 1a which increases the formation of vascular endothelial growth factor and erythropoetin.
  38. What causes Fragile X syndrome?
    An increased number of CGG trinucleotide repeats leads to HYPERMETHYLATION of cytosine bases and subsequent gene inactivation (FMR1 gene).

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