Craniofacial region

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MarineLopes
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293496
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Craniofacial region
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2015-01-21 18:29:55
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  1. Which elements are derived from neural crest?

    Head mesenchyme.

    Hyoid bone.

    C-cells or
    parafollicular cells of the thyroid.

    Thyroid cartilage
    All
  2. The laryngeal
    cartilages develop from branchial arches IV and VI.

    True.

    False.
    True
  3. Muscles of aches IV and VI?

    Laryngeal muscles (intrinsic)

    Constrictors of pharynx

    Stylopharyngeus

    Cricothyroideus

    Levator veli palatini
    • Laryngeal muscles
    • Constrictors of pharynx
    • Cricothyroideus
    • Levator veli palatini
  4. Nerve of 4th and 6th arches?

    Vagus X
    Facial VII
    Glossopharyngeal IX
    Trigeminal V
    • Vagus X
    • 4th- superior laryngeal branch
    • 6th- recurrent laryngeal branch
  5. The parathyroid glands are derivatives of pharyngeal pouches III and IV.

    True.

    False.
    True
  6. Derivatives of 3rd pharyngeal pouch:

    Thymus
    Superior parathyroid gland
    Inferior parathyroid gland
    Palatine tonsils
    • Thymus
    • Inferior parathyroid gland
  7. Derivatives of 4th pharyngeal pouch:

    Thymus
    Superior parathyroid gland
    Inferior parathyroid gland
    Palatine tonsils
    Ultimobranchial body
    • Superior parathyroid gland
    • Ultimobranchial body (in the questions it is considered to be derivative of 5th pouch, but book considers 4th)
  8. The hypobranchial eminence contributes to formation of:

    Anterior portion of the tongue.

    Posterior portion of the tongue.

    Musculature of the tongue.

    Epiglottis.

    Palatine tonsils.
    • Posterior portion of the tongue. (posterior third)
    • (Innervated by nerve of 3rd pharyngeal arch- glossopharyngeal)
  9. Nerve which innervates posterior third of the tongue?
    Glossopharyngeal IX (nerve of the 3rd pharyngeal arch)
  10. Tongue musculature arises from? Innervated by?
    • Occipital somites
    • Innervated by hypoglossal n. XII
  11. Epiglottis arises as an epiglottic swelling on which arch?
    4th arch
  12. Palatine tonsil is formed from which pouch?
    2nd pouch
  13. The fact that general and special sensory information from the posterior part of the tongue is carried by glossopharyngeal nerve indicates that this part of tongue is from branchial arch:

    I

    II

    III

    IV

    VI
    -> III

    (Glossopharyngeal carries general sense and special sense of taste from post. part of the tongue; in anterior tongue, trigeminal does general and facial does special sense)
  14. Which nerve carries general sensory information from anterior part of the tongue?
    Trigeminal n. V
  15. Which nerve carries special sensory information from anterior part of the tongue?
    Facial n. VII
  16. Myoblasts from the occipital myotomes are believed to give rise to the muscles of the.

    Eye.

    Face.

    Ear.

    Jaw, for masticaton.

    Tongue.
    • Tongue
    • (occipital myotomes supply muscle for tongue and are innervated by cranial nerve XII, hypoglossal)
  17. Most muscles of the head arise from?
    Somiteres located cranial to the occipital somites.
  18. As a resident in pediatrics you are called to see a newborn who has a unilateral cleft lip and a unilateral cleft of the primary palate. This condition is most likely the result of:

    Failure of fusion of the mandibular prominences.

    Failure of fusion of the medial nasal processes.

    Failure of fusion of the maxillary prominence with the medial nasal prominence.

    Failure of fusion of the lateral palatine processes with the nasal septum.

    Failure of fusion of the paired lateral palatine processes.
    Failure of fusion of the maxillary prominence with the medial nasal prominence.
  19. Which of the following structures are NOT part of the first branchial arch?

    Malleus.
    Mandibular process.
    Sphenomandibular ligament.
    Stylohyoid ligament.
    Maxillary process.
    Incus.
    Stapes.
    Styloid process.
    Lesser horns & upper part of hyoid.
    • Stylohyoid ligament.
    • Stapes.
    • Styloid process.
    • Lesser horns & upper part of hyoid.
    • (all second arch)
  20. Which of the following structures are NOT part of the first branchial arch? 

    Malleus.
    Mandibular process.
    Sphenomandibular ligament.
    Stylohyoid ligament.
    Maxillary process.
    Stylohyoid ligament.
  21. Which of the following structures are from the first branchial arch? 

    Malleus.
    Mandibular process.
    Sphenomandibular ligament.
    Stylohyoid ligament.
    Maxillary process.
    Incus.
    Meckel's cartilage.
    • Malleus.
    • Mandibular process.
    • Sphenomandibular ligament.
    • Maxillary process.
    • Incus.
    • Meckel's cartilage.
  22. Which of the following structures is NOT part of the 2nd Branchial arch?

    Stapes.
    Superior portion of the hyoid bone .
    Sphenomandibular ligament.
    Stylohyoid ligament.
    Lesser cornu of the hyoid bone.
    • -> Sphenomandibular ligament.

    • Cartilage of first arch gives rise to:
    • malleus, incus, spine of sphenoid & lingula of mandible, sphenomandibular ligament.

    • Cartilage of the 2nd arch gives rise to:
    • stapes, styloid process, stylohyoid ligament, lesser horn & upper part of hyoid.
  23. Which structures are derived from the intermaxillary segment of the embryonic face?

    Philtrum.
    Anterior portion of the palate. (primary palate)
    Anterior portion of the upper jaws.
    Upper incisor teeth.
    All
  24. The nasolacrimal groove separates the.

    Mandibular and maxillary swellings.
    Lateral nasal and maxillary swellings.
    Medial nasal and maxillary swellings.
    First and second branchial arches.
    Otic and optic vesicles.
    Lateral nasal and maxillary swellings.
  25. The nasolacrimal groove forms?
    • Nasolacrimal duct
    • Lacrimal sac
  26. Which of the following
    does NOT form from the thyroglossal duct?

    Pyramidal lobe of the thyroid.
    Ectopic thyroid tissue.
    Thyroglossal cyst.
    Branchial fistula.
    • Branchial fistula.
    • (formed by the failure of the 2nd pharyngeal arch to overgrow the 3rd and 4th clefts)
  27. Which of the following
    does form from the thyroglossal duct?

    Pyramidal lobe of thethyroid.
    Ectopic thyroid tissue.
    Thyroglossal cyst.
    Branchial fistula.
    • Pyramidal lobe of thethyroid.
    • Ectopic thyroid tissue.
    • Thyroglossal cyst.
  28. The secondary palate is formed by:

    Fusion of the palatal shelves.

    Posterior growth of the primary palate.

    Mesenchyme of the first arch.

    Cell death in the region of the oropharyngeal  membrane.
    • Fusion of the palatal shelves.
    • Mesenchyme of the first arch. (palatal shelves are outgrowths of the maxillary prominences, which are 1st arch derivatives)

    Secondary palate fuses with primary palate from the intermaxillary segment, to form the adult palate.
  29. The branchial,
    visceral or pharyngeal arches are derived from:

    Ectoderm
    Endoderm
    Mesoderm
    All
  30. Many facial malformations are believed to be due to:

    A failure of the oropharyngeal membrane to rupture.

    A failure of neural crest cells to migrate into the facial processes.

    A failure in growth of the head fold.

    An abnormal persistence of the pharyngeal clefts.


    A failure of neural crest cells to migrate into the facial processes.
  31. The foramen cecum of the adult tongue:

    Marks the point of embryonic evagination of the thymus gland.

    Divides the tongue into two parts, an anterior one-third and a posterior two-thirds.

    Marks the point of embryonic evagination of the thyroid gland.

    Develops into taste buds.

    Has no embryological significance.
    • Marks the point of embryonic evagination of the thyroid gland.
  32. Identify the correct associations:

    Primary palate - palatine shelves of the maxillary processes.

    Neural crest cells – facial processes.

    Nasolacrimal groove – lateral nasal process and mandibular process.

    Cleft lip – medial and lateral nasal processes.
    Neural crest cells – facial processes.
  33. Primary palate arises from?
    Intermaxillary segment
  34. Nasolacrimal groove separates which swellings?
    Maxillary and lateral nasal swellings
  35. Cleft lip can result from?
    Failure of fusion between the maxillary and medial nasal prominences
  36. The pharyngeal arches
    are associated with each of the following EXCEPT.

    Cartilagineous structures.

    Cranial nerves.

    Venous arches.

    Vascular components.

    Muscular components.
    • Venous arches.
  37. Which of the following
    malformations is NOT found in the "first pharyngeal arch syndrome"?

    Abnormal external ear.

    Abnormal middle ear.

    Macrostomia.

    Thyroglossal duct cyst.

    Defect in lower eyelid.
    • Thyroglossal duct cyst.
  38. The intermaxillary segment of the embryonic face gives rise to the philtrum of the upper lip, part of the maxilla with four incisor teeth and the triangular primary palate.

    True.

    False.
    True
  39. Cleft palate results when the palatine shelves fail to fuse with the nasal septum.

    True.

    False.
    False - results from nonfusion or rupture of the fusion of the palatal shelves

  40. A syndrome involving lack of pharyngeal pouch III would result in lack of the thymus gland and palatine tonsil.

    True.

    False.
    • False - lack of thymus yes but not palatine tonsil; palatine tonsil comes from 2nd pharyngeal pouch
  41. A syndrome involving lack of pharyngeal pouch III would result in lack of

    Thymus gland
    Palatine tonsil
    Inferior parathyroid glands
    Superior parathyrioid glands
    • Thymus gland
    • Inferior parathyroid glands
  42. A syndrome involving lack of pharyngeal pouch IIII would result in lack of 

    Thymus gland
    Palatine tonsil
    Inferior parathyroid glands
    Superior parathyrioid glands
    Superior parathyroid glands
  43. A syndrome involving lack of pharyngeal pouch II would result in lack of 

    Thymus gland
    Palatine tonsil
    Inferior parathyroid glands
    Superior parathyrioid glands
    • Palatine tonsil
  44. Each paryngeal arch includes?

    Derivatives of ectodermal neural crest cells.

    An aortic arch artery.

    Mesodermal core from paraxial mesoderm.

    A cranial nerve.
    All

    Mesodermal core - gives rise to cartilaginous and muscular components

    Derivatives of neural crest cells - supplement much of the CT of the face
  45. Which of the following are associated with the 2nd pharyngeal arch?

    Malleus bone.

    Facial nerve.

    Glossopharyngeal nerve.

    Lower portion of the hyoid bone.

    Anterior belly of digastric.
    Facial Nerve
  46. Identify the correct associations:

    External ear abnormality – mandibular and maxillary
    processes.

    Oblique facial cleft – frontal and maxillary processes.

    Cleft lip – maxillary and medial nasal processes.

    Macrostomia – mandibular and hyoid arches.

    Aglossia – mandibular arch.
    Cleft lip – maxillary and medial nasal processes.
  47. Too little or too much fusion between maxillary and mandibular swellings results in?

    Macrostomia
    Microstomia
    Oblique facial cleft
    Cleft lip
    External ear abnormality
    • Macrostomia
    • Microstomia
  48. Failure of maxillary and lateral nasal process fusion represents:

    Macrostomia
    Microstomia
    Oblique facial cleft
    Cleft lip
    External ear abnormality
    Oblique facial cleft
  49. Failure of maxillary and medial nasal prominences fusion:

    Macrostomia
    Microstomia
    Oblique facial cleft
    Cleft lip
    External ear abnormality
    Cleft lip
  50. Which of the following are associated with the 3rd paryngeal pouch?

    Parafollicular or calcitonin cells of the thyroid gland.

    Superior parathyroid gland.

    Thyroid gland.

    Thymus gland.
    • Thymus gland
  51. Parafollicular cells come from?
    Ultimobranchial body of the 5th arch (according to book from the 4th)
  52. Thyroid comes from?
    Epithelium of pharynx via the thyroid diverticulum
  53. Branchial cysts or lateral cervical cysts:

    Are found along the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle.

    Are formed from a rupture of the membreane between pharyngeal pouches and branchial clefts.

    Are remnants of the thyroglossal duct.

    Are found in front of the ear.

    Are remnants of the cervical sinus.
    • Are remnants of the cervical sinus (which forms when 2nd arch grows over the 3rd and 4th arches)
    • Are found along the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. (usually just below the anggle of the jaw)
  54. An absent lower jaw is called:

    Micrognathus.

    Cleft lip.

    Macrostomus.

    Cheiloschisis.

    Agnathus.
    Agnathus
  55. In the process of face formation or construction, the first to come into being is the:

    Orbital ridge.

    Upper jaw

    Lower jaw.

    Ears.

    Nose.
    Lower jaw
  56. Auditory ossicles develop from the condensed mesenchyme of the: 

    First branchial arch.

    Second branchial arch.

    Third branchial arch.

    Fourth branchial arch.
    • First branchial arch. (malleus and incus)
    • Second branchial arch. (stapes)
  57. The third branchial arch cartilage gives rise to the:

    Stylohyoid ligament.

    Thyroid cartilage.

    Styloid process.

    Greater cornu of hyoid bone.

    Sphenomandibular ligament.

    Lower part of the body of hyoid bone.

    Stylopharyngeus muscle.
    • Greater cornu of hyoid bone.
    • Lower part of the body of hyoid bone.
    • Stylopharyngeus muscle.
  58. A small blind pit at the anteriorborder of the
    sternocleidomastoid muscle that drips mucous is likely the persistence of the embryonic opening of the.

    First pharyngeal pouch.

    Third pharyngeal pouch.

    Second branchial groove.

    Second branchial groove and cervical sinus.

    Thyroglossal duct.
    Second branchial groove and cervical sinus. (Q32 BOOK)
  59. Which of the following develops from the connective tissue component of the second pharyngeal arch?

    Thyroglossal duct.
    Malleus.
    Tympanic membrane.
    Laryngeal muscles.
    Mylohyoid muscle.
    Palatine tonsil.
    Lesser horn of hyoid bone.
    Superior parathyroid gland.
    Stylopharyngeus muscle.
    Nasolacrimal duct.
    Stapedius.
    Styloid process.
    Stylohyoid ligament.
    Upper portion of body of hyoid.
    Cricoid cartilage.
    External auditory meautus.
    • Lesser horn of hyoid bone.
    • Stapedius.
    • Styloid process.
    • Stylohyoid ligament.
    • Upper portion of body of hyoid.
  60. Which of the following develops from the first
    pharyngeal cleft?

    Thyroglossal duct.

    Malleus.

    Tympanic membrane.

    Laryngeal muscles.

    Mylohyoid muscle.

    Palatine tonsil.

    Lesser horn of hyoid bone.

    Superior parathyroid gland.

    Stylopharyngeus muscle.

    Nasolacrimal duct.

    Cricoid cartilage.

    External auditory meatus.
    • External auditory meatus.
  61. Which of the following develops from the third pharyngeal
    arch?

    Thyroglossal duct.
    Malleus.
    Tympanic membrane.
    Greater horn of hyoid bone.
    Laryngeal muscles.
    Lower portion of the body of hyoid bone.
    Mylohyoid muscle.
    Palatine tonsil.
    Lesser horn of hyoid bone.
    Superior parathyroid glands.
    Stylopharyngeus muscle.
    Nasolacrimal duct.
    Cricoid cartilage.
    External auditory meatus.
    • Greater horn of hyoid bone.
    • Lower portion of the body of hyoid bone.
    • Stylopharyngeus muscle.

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