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What kind of organisms live in high salt environments?
What kind of organisms live in acidic conditions?
What kind of organisms live in basic conditions?
What kind of organisms live in high temperatures?
What kind of organisms live in normal temperatures?
What kind of organisms live in low temperatures?
What kind of organisms need O2?
What kind of organisms can live with or without O2?
What kind of organisms do not need O2 to live?
What are the levels of organism classification?
Kingdom (5 kingdoms)
Phylum (sub phylum)
King Phillip Came Over From Germany Swimming
How many kingdoms are there?
Name the kingdoms.
How are Humans classified?
Kingdom - Animalia
Phylum – Choridata (vertebrata)
Class - Mammalia
Order - Primate
Family - Hominidae
Genus - Homo
Species - Sapien
True or False: Classical Naming System is Used by Bioengineers and most Scientists.
False. It is too cumbersome. They will use the genus and species part but other than that am alternative system is used.
What is included in the alternative classification system?
Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
What classifies a prokaryote?
no nucleus, bacteria
What classifies a eukaryote?
have nucleus, animal cells, plant cells, algae, protozoa, fungi (molds, yeast)
Name is structure.
What is cytoplasm?
generic name for everything inside cell
What is DNA?
nucleoid, genetic info
What are ribosomes?
rRNA and protein, site of protein Synthesis
What is flagellum?
What is plasma membrane?
What is cell wall?
What is capsule?
protective polysaccharide (slime)
What is pilus?
Name some gram positive bacteria.
- Aureus (cocci)
- Epidermis (cocci)
- Pyogenes (cocci) - Rhumatic Fever, Respiratory infection Strep
- Botulinum (rod) - Botulism, Toxin
- Perfringes (rod) - gas gangrene
- Tetani (rod) - tetanus
- Anthracis (rod) - Anthrax
Name some gram negative bacteria.
- Gonnorrhoeae (cocci) -
- Meningitidis (cocci) - bacteria menigitis
- Coli (rod) - food borne infection
- Typhi (rod) - Typhoid Fever
- Aeruginosa (rod) - Resp. infection
- Cholerae (vibrio) - Cholera
What is the method for testing gram positive/negative?
Stain cells (on slide) in Crystal Violet for 1-2 minutes then pour off stain
Flood slide with Gram’s Iodine for 1-2 minutes
Wash slide briefly with acetone to decolorize (1-3 seconds)
Wash slide with water
Flood slide with Safranin Counterstain for 1-2 minutes.
Wash slide with water and then dry it.
Gram positive bacteria stain what color?
Gram negative bacteria stain what color?
What is the name of prokaryotic cell division?
What are the steps of binary fission?
- 1) Chromosome
- 2) DNA duplicates
- 3) Cell grows and separates
- 4) two daughter cells
Name this structure.
What is the structure of a eukaryotic cell membrane?
What does hydrophillic mean?
What does hydrophobic mean?
What is nuclear membrane in eukaryotes?
porous lipid bilayer
What are chromosomes in eukaryotes?
What is endoplasmic reticulum in eukaryotes?
What is golgi apparatus in eukaryotes?
transport to cell exterior
What are mitochondria used for in Eukaryotes?
What are centrioles used for in eukaryotes?
What is cilia used for in eukaryotes?
What are microtubules used for in eukaryotes?
What is the name of eukaryotic cell division?
The Cell Cycle
What are the parts of the cell cycle?
Mitosis, cytokinesis, and interphase
Which has a larger overall diameter?
Which has a thicker outer structure?
What options are their for the capsid of a virus?
Name this structure.
Name this structure.
What is the name of the virus life cycle?
the lytic cycle
What are the stages of the lytic cycle?
What are the functions of the cell/plasma membrane?
Allows nutrients to enter
Keeps out unwanted molecules
Transports waste out of cell
Separates ions on either side
Prevents metabolites from exiting cell
Site for reactions of surface proteins/enzymes
What is the main component in lipids?
Name 3 types of transport across membranes.
- 1) Diffusion (passive diffusion)
- 2) Active Transport
- 3) Facilitated Transport (diffusion)
What classifies diffusion?
No metabolic energy expended
Direction is down concentration gradient
Membrane limits rate
Water movement is a special case
What classifies active transport?
Cell expends energy,
Movement against concentration gradient
What classifies facilitated transport?
No energy expended
Movement down concentration gradient
Describe Diffusion of Water.
Membrane lipids are fluid like
Lipids are constantly moving
Water enters cells through transient gaps in the bilayer structure that allow passage
Water also enters through membrane proteins
What is the driving force osmotic flow?
The gradient of water molecules across the membrane
Define isotonic solution.
If dissolved species per unit volume in one solution is equal to the another, then the solutions are isotonic
Define hypotonic solution.
Dissolved species per unit volume is less than in a comparison solution. Solution with fewer dissolved species is hypotonic relative to the other solution.
Define hypertonic solution.
Dissolved species per unit volume is greater than a comparison solution. Solution with more dissolved species is hypertonic relative to the other solution.
True or False: Most mammalian cells and bacterial cells thrive in isotonic environments.
What allows plants to stand up?
Give an example of active transport.
Sodium Potassium Pump