Eng Bio Cells and Their House Keeping Functions Notes

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engmaster
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Eng Bio Cells and Their House Keeping Functions Notes
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2015-01-22 10:19:43
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Eng bio hous keepin function cells exam1
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Exam 1 Prep. Third Note Set.
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  1. What kind of organisms live in high salt environments?
    Halophiles
  2. What kind of organisms live in acidic conditions?
    Acidophiles
  3. What kind of organisms live in basic conditions?
    Basophiles
  4. What kind of organisms live in high temperatures?
    Thermophiles
  5. What kind of organisms live in normal temperatures?
    Mesophiles
  6. What kind of organisms live in low temperatures?
    Psychrophiles
  7. What kind of organisms need O2?
    Aerobic
  8. What kind of organisms can live with or without O2?
    Faculative Anerobes
  9. What kind of organisms do not need O2 to live?
    Anerobes
  10. What are the levels of organism classification?
    Kingdom (5 kingdoms)

    Phylum (sub phylum)

    Class

    Order

    Family

    Genus

    Species

    King Phillip Came Over From Germany Swimming
  11. How many kingdoms are there?
    5 Kingdoms
  12. Name the kingdoms.
    Monera

    Protista

    Animalia

    Fungi

    Plantae
  13. How are Humans classified?
    Kingdom - Animalia

    Phylum – Choridata (vertebrata)

    Class - Mammalia

    Order - Primate

    Family - Hominidae

    Genus - Homo

    Species - Sapien
  14. True or False: Classical Naming System is Used by Bioengineers and most  Scientists.
    False. It is too cumbersome. They will use the genus and species part but other than that am alternative system is used.
  15. What is included in the alternative classification system?
    Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
  16. What classifies a prokaryote?
    no nucleus, bacteria
  17. What classifies a eukaryote?
    have nucleus, animal cells, plant cells, algae, protozoa, fungi (molds, yeast)
  18. Name is structure.
    Prokaryote
  19. What is cytoplasm?
    generic name for everything inside cell
  20. What is DNA?
    nucleoid, genetic info
  21. What are ribosomes?
    rRNA and protein, site of protein Synthesis
  22. What is flagellum?
    motility
  23. What is plasma membrane?
    containment
  24. What is cell wall?
    rigid barrier
  25. What is capsule?
    protective polysaccharide (slime)
  26. What is pilus?
    attachment
  27. Name some gram positive bacteria.
    • Staphylococcus
    • Aureus (cocci)

    • Staphylococcus
    • Epidermis (cocci)

    • Streptococcus
    • Pyogenes (cocci) - Rhumatic Fever, Respiratory infection Strep
    • Throat.

    • Clostridium
    • Botulinum (rod) - Botulism, Toxin

    • Clostridium
    • Perfringes (rod) - gas gangrene

    • Clostridium
    • Tetani (rod) - tetanus

    • Bacillus
    • Anthracis (rod) - Anthrax
  28. Name some gram negative bacteria.
    • Neisseria
    • Gonnorrhoeae (cocci) -

    • Neisseria
    • Meningitidis (cocci) - bacteria menigitis

    • Escherichia
    • Coli (rod) - food borne infection

    • Salmonella
    • Typhi (rod) - Typhoid Fever

    • Pseudomonas
    • Aeruginosa (rod) - Resp. infection

    • Vibrio
    • Cholerae (vibrio) - Cholera
  29. What is the method for testing gram positive/negative?
    Stain cells (on slide) in Crystal Violet for 1-2 minutes then pour off stain

    Flood slide with Gram’s Iodine for 1-2 minutes

    Wash slide briefly with acetone to decolorize (1-3 seconds)

    Wash slide with water

    Flood slide with Safranin Counterstain for 1-2 minutes.

    Wash slide with water and then dry it.
  30. Gram positive bacteria stain what color?
    Purple
  31. Gram negative bacteria stain what color?
    Pink
  32. What is the name of prokaryotic cell division?
    Binary Fission
  33. What are the steps of binary fission?
    • 1) Chromosome
    • 2) DNA duplicates
    • 3) Cell grows and separates
    • 4) two daughter cells
  34. Name this structure.
    Eukaryote
  35. What is the structure of a eukaryotic cell membrane?
    phospholipid bilayer
  36. What does hydrophillic mean?
    water loving
  37. What does hydrophobic mean?
    Water fearing
  38. What is nuclear membrane in eukaryotes?
    porous lipid bilayer
  39. What are chromosomes in eukaryotes?
    DNA
  40. What is endoplasmic reticulum in eukaryotes?
    membranous network
  41. What is golgi apparatus in eukaryotes?
    transport to cell exterior
  42. What are mitochondria used for in Eukaryotes?
    Respiration
  43. What are centrioles used for in eukaryotes?
    nuclear division
  44. What is cilia used for in eukaryotes?
    movement
  45. What are microtubules used for in eukaryotes?
    division
  46. What is the name of eukaryotic cell division?
    The Cell Cycle
  47. What are the parts of the cell cycle?
    Mitosis, cytokinesis, and interphase
  48. Which has a larger overall diameter?

    a) prokaryote
    b) eukaryote
    b) eukaryote
  49. Which has a thicker outer structure?

    a) prokaryote
    b) eukaryote
    a) prokaryote
  50. What options are their for the capsid of a virus?
    • •Icosahedral
    • •Helical
    • •Complex
  51. Name this structure.
    Enveloped Virus
  52. Name this structure.
    Non-Enveloped Virus
  53. What is the name of the virus life cycle?
    the lytic cycle
  54. What are the stages of the lytic cycle?
  55. What are the functions of the cell/plasma membrane?
    Separates interior/exterior

    Allows nutrients to enter

    Keeps out unwanted molecules

    Transports waste out of cell

    Separates ions on either side

    Prevents metabolites from exiting cell

    Site for reactions of surface proteins/enzymes
  56. What is the main component in lipids?
    fatty acids
  57. Name 3 types of transport across membranes.
    • 1) Diffusion (passive diffusion)
    • 2) Active Transport
    • 3) Facilitated Transport (diffusion)
  58. What classifies diffusion?
    No metabolic energy expended

    Direction is down concentration gradient

    Membrane limits rate

    Water movement is a special case
  59. What classifies active transport?
    Cell expends energy,

    Movement against concentration gradient
  60. What classifies facilitated transport?
    No energy expended

    Movement down concentration gradient
  61. Describe Diffusion of Water.
    Membrane lipids are fluid like

    Lipids are constantly moving

    Water enters cells through transient gaps in the bilayer structure that allow passage

    Water also enters through membrane proteins
  62. What is the driving force osmotic flow?
    The gradient of water molecules across the membrane
  63. Define isotonic solution.
    If dissolved species per unit volume in one solution is equal to the another, then the solutions are isotonic
  64. Define hypotonic solution.
    Dissolved species per unit volume is less than in a comparison solution.  Solution with fewer dissolved species is hypotonic relative to the other solution.
  65. Define hypertonic solution.
    Dissolved species per unit volume is greater than a comparison solution.  Solution with more dissolved species is hypertonic relative to the other solution.
  66. True or False: Most mammalian cells and bacterial cells thrive in isotonic environments.
    True
  67. What allows plants to stand up?
    Turgor pressure
  68. Give an example of active transport.
    Sodium Potassium Pump

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