A&P Midterm CH 1-10

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A&P Midterm CH 1-10
2015-01-21 17:08:31
Midterm 10

A&P Midterm CH 1-10
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  1. unicellular gland, secrete mucus and are part of the respiratory tract
  2. what isn't true about this statement?
    Areolar CT cushions the kidney
    "Adipose" CT cushions the kidneys
  3. What are Tendons made of?
    fibrous connective tissues
  4. Which statement is true?
    1) The covering of the skull and backbone is the meninges CT.
    2) The lining of the skull and backbone is the meninges CT.
    2) The lining of the skull and backbone is the meninges CT.
  5. What is DNA code copied by?
  6. What is the triplet code consist of?
    3 basis on the DNA are the code for one "Amino Acid"

  7. Where is interneuron found?
    Within CNS
  8. Receptors for muscle sense are _____ that detect _____ .
  9. Keeping the body upright is a purpose of?
    Stretch Reflex
  10. Descending tract is?
    White matter that carry impulses away from brain.
  11. Depolarization of nerve impulse ______ makes the membrane permeable to ______.
  12. In men, hormone necessary for mature sperm?
  13. Hormone that initiates egg/sperm production?
  14. hormone that stimulates 2nd sex hormone in women?
  15. List levels of organization from simplest to complex.
    Chemical<Cellular<Tissue<Organ<Organ System<Organism
  16. A person who is in good health. Bodies ability to maintain stable metabolism and function normally despite many constant changes.
  17. The Cavity that contains CNS, Cranial cavity, vertebral/spinal
    Dorsal Cavity
  18. Cavity that contains thoracic cavity and abdominal cavity
    Ventral Cavity
  19. Thoracic cavity consist of?
    Heart and Lung
  20. Abdominal cavity consists of?
    liver, stomach, intestine
  21. plane from side to side separates the body into front and back portions
    • Frontal plan
  22. plan from front to back separates the body into right and left portions.
    • sagittal plane
  23. plane perpendicular to the long axis of an organ.
    Cross-sectional plane
  24. a plane along the long axis of the organ.
    longitudinal section
  25. a plane that divides the body to superior and inferior halves.
    Transverse plane
  26. positive electrical charge and is found i the nucleus or center of atom.number of protons in atom gives it its atomic number.
  27. electrically neutral and is found in the nucleus.
  28. negative charge is found outside the nucleus orbiting in what may be called an electron cloud or shell around the nucleus
  29. ions w/ (+) charge
    ex: Na+ Ca2+ K+ Fe2+
  30. ions w/ (-) charges
    ex: Cl- SO42- HCO3-
  31. what is the cellular respiration equation?
    Glucose (C6H12O6) + 6O2  --> 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP + Heat
  32. Glucose. Complex or Simple sugar?
    simple sugar C6H12O6
  33. DNA(double helix) base pairing?
    • A - T (Adenine - Thymine)
    • G - C (Guanine - Cytosine)
  34. Where is DNA found?
    Chromosome in nucleus of cell.
  35. RNA(single strand nucleotides) base pairing
    • A - U (Adenine - Uracil)
    • G - C (Guanine - Cytosine)

    In RNA, the (U)Uracil is in place of (T)Thymine.
  36. Consist of pentose sugar, phosphate group and one of several nitrogenous base.
  37. DNA makes up the chromosome of cells.  Heredity characteristics
    Genetic Code
  38. Single nucleotide w/3 phosphate group, made from ADP and Phosphate.   Formed when Energy is released in cellular respiration. Provides energy for cellular respiration.
  39. made of phospholipids, cholesterol, and protein.
    Cell membrane
  40. certain substance are permitted to pass through and others are not.
    selectively permeable membrane
  41. Extensive network of membranes tubules that extend from the nuclear membrane to cell membrane.
    Endoplasmic Reiculum
  42. Lipids synthesized by _____ ER
    Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
  43. Proteins synthesized by the ribosomes on the _____ ER.
    Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
  44. Are very small structures made of protein and ribosomal RNA.  Some are found on the surface of rough ER, while others float freely within the cytoplasm.
  45. A series of flat, membranous sacs, somewhat like a stack of saucers.  Carbohydrates are synthesized within the _____, and are packaged, along with other materials for secretion from the cell.
    Golgi Apparatus
  46. are oval or spherical organelles bounded by a double membrane.  Aerobic (O2-required) reactions of cell respiration takes place. Site of ATP production.
  47. Are single-membrane structures that contain digestive enzymes. Digest and destroys bacteria, worn out cells, dead cells. important process before tissue repair can begin
  48. mobile thread-like projections through the cell membrane; each is anchored by a basal body just within the membrane. It beats in unison and sweep materials across the cell surface.
  49. The sperm cell is the only human cell with a _____. It provides motility/movement for the sperm cell.
  50. are folds of the cell membrane on the free surface of a cell. Folds greatly increase the surface area of the membrane, and are part of the cells lining organs that absorb materials.
  51. the movement of molecules from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration; occurs because molecules have free energy. O2 and CO2 are exchanged in the lungs and tissues through this.
  52. the diffusion of water. Water diffuses to an area of less water, that is, to an area of more dissolved material. The small intestine absorbs water from digested food by this.
  53. diffusion of molecules, requiring carrier enzymes/transfers.
    facilitated diffusion
  54. a cell uses ATP/Energy to move substance from an area of lesser concentration to an area of greater concentration.  Sodium pump returns Na+  ions to the exterior of the cells. Cells of small intestine absorb glucose and amino acids from digested food by this.
    active transport
  55. pressure forces water and dissolved materials through a membrane from an area of higher pressure to an area of lower pressure.  BP forces plasma and dissolved nutrients out of capillaries and into tissues.  BP in the kidney capillaries create filtrations which is the first step in the formation of urine.
  56. A form of endocytosis/ a "moving" cell engulfs something; white blood cells phagocytize bacteria to destroy them.
  57. A form of endocytosis/ a "stationary" cell engulfs small molecules; kidney tubule cells reabsorb small proteins by this.
  58. a solution with same salt concentration as in cells.
  59. A solution with a lower salt concentration than in cells. Distilled water (0% salt) is _____ to human cells
  60. a solution with a higher salt concentration than in cells.  Seawater (3% salt) is _____ to human cells.
  61. 1 cell with the diploid number of chromosomes divides once to form 2 cells, each with diploid number of chromosomes (46 for humans)
  62. 4 cells are produced. 1 cell w/diploid number of chromosome divides twice.  each cell produced has haploid number of chromosome. the cell produce are egg and sperm cell.
  63. Chromosomes coil up. Visible short rods. Each chromosome is really 2 chromatids still attached at a region called the centromere. Nuclear membrane disappears. Centrioles move toward opposite poles of the cell and organize the spindle fibers
  64. pairs of chromatids line up along the equator of the cell. centromere of each pair is attached to a spindle fiber. Centromeres now divide.
  65. Each chromatid is now considered a separate chromosome. 2 complete and separate set. The spindle fibers contract and pull the chromosomes.
  66. The set of chromosomes reach the poles of the cell and become indistinct as their DNA uncoils to form chromatin. Nuclear membrane re-forms around each set of chromosomes.
  67. Structure: Plasma (matrix) and RBC, WBC, platelets
    Location:Within blood vessels
    Function: Plasma - transports materials. RBCs - Carry oxygen. WBCs - destroys pathogens. Platelets - prevent blood loss.
  68. Structure: Fibroblasts and a matrix of tissue fluids, collagen, and elastin fibers
    Location: Subcutaneous, Mucous membranes (digestive, respiratory, urinary, reproductive)
    Function: connects skin to muscle. WBC destroy pathogens.
    Areolar (loose) connective tissue
  69. Structure: Adipocytes that store fat (little matrix)
    Location: Subcutaneous. Around the eyes and kidneys. Brown fat in infants.
    Function: Stores excess energy. Produces chemicals that influence appetite, use of nutrients, and inflammation. Cushions. Generates heat.
  70. Structure: Mostly collagen fibers w/few fibroblasts.
    Location: tendons, ligaments, dermis
    Function: strong to withstand forces of movements of joints. the strong inner layer of the skin.
  71. Structure: mostly elastin fibers w/few fibroblasts
    Location: Walls of arteries. Around the alveoli in lungs
    Function: helps maintain blood pressure. promotes normal exhalation.
  72. Structure: Osteocytes in a matrix of calcium salts and collagen.
    Function: Support the body. protects internal organs from mechanical injury. stores excess calcium. contain and protect red bone marrow.
  73. structure: Chondrocytes in a flexible protein matrix.
    location: wall of trachea. tip of nose and outer ear. between vertebrae
    function: keeps airway open. smooth to prevent friction. supports. absorb shock.
  74. Structure: large cylindrical cells with striations and several nuclei each
    Location: attached to bones
    Function: moves to skeleton and produces heat.
    Skeletal (striated)/Voluntary muscle
  75. Structure: small tapered cells with no striations and one nucleus each
    Location: walls of arteries. walls of stomach and intestines. iris of eye
    Function: maintains BP. peristalsis. regulates size of pupil.
    Smooth muscle tissue
  76. Structure: branched cells with faint striations and one nucleus each
    Location: walls of the chambers of the heart
    Function: pump blood.
    Cardiac muscle tissue
  77. In the epidermis, where does mitosis occur to produce new cells?
    stratum germinativum
  78. In the Epidermis, What is the name of the new cells produced in the stratum germinativum?
    Protein Keratin
  79. In the epidermis, The outermost epidermal layer consists of many layers of dead cells. In the epidermis, The epidermal layer that prevents loss and entry of H2O & resists entry of pathogens and chemicals.
    Stratum Corneum
  80. How does Human defensin in the Integumentary System provide a chemical barrier?
    Human defensin is a natural antibiotic
  81. the dermis is strong because of the presence of?
    collagen fibers
  82. the protein that gives the dermis elasticity.
    elastin fibers
  83. mitosis at the root produces the hair shaft.
    hair follicles
  84. What is Vasodilation?
    release of body heat in Hot Environment
  85. what is vasoconstriction?
    conserve body heat in cold environment
  86. what are bone cells called?
  87. the nutrients that become part of the bone matrix are?
    calcium and phosphorus
  88. the cells that produce bone matrix and those that reabsorb bone matrix are called?
  89. made of haversian systems, which are cylindrical arrangements of osteocytes within matrix.
    compact bone
  90. microscopic cylinder of bone matrix with osteocytes in concentric rings around central haversian canals.
    • Osteons
  91. contains osteocytes and bone matrix, but these are not arranged in Haversian systems. Often contains red bone marrow.
    spongy bone
  92. found in cavities of spongy bone. produced RBC, platelets and 5 kinds of WBC.
    Red Bone Marrow
  93. bone matrix is produced by cells called?
  94. large cell with several nuclei and a ruffled skirt appearance.  secretes acid and enzymes to dissolved and digest a microscopic bit of bone matrix and then absorbs the minerals and amino acids.
  95. the process of bone replacement of another tissue is called?
  96. at birth, ossification of the bones of the skull is not complete and areas of fibrous connective tissue called _______ remain between the bones.
  97. broken parts are still in normal anatomic position; tissue damage is minimal, skin not pierced.
    simple fracture
  98. the broken end of a bone has been moved, and it pierces the skin; there may be extensive damage to surrounding blood vessels, nerves, muscles.
    Compound fracture
  99. the bone splits longitudinally.  the bones of children contain more collagen than do adult bones and tend to splinter rather than break completely
    Greenstick fracture
  100. 2 or more intersecting breaks create several bone fragments.
    Comminuted fractures
  101. all of the joints between cranial bones are immovable joints called sutures.
    • sutures
  102. the flared upper portion that forms the sacroiliac joint
    • ilium
  103. the lower, posterior part that we sit on.
    • ischium
  104. the socket in the hip bone that forms a ball-and-socket joint with femur.
    • Acetabulum
  105. kneecap. anterior to the knee joint.
    • Patella
  106. Tibia
  107. fibula
  108. each skeletal muscle is made of thousand of individual muscle cells.
  109. Fibrous connective tissue structures called?
  110. the more movable attachment of a muscle to a bone is called?
  111. the more stationary attachment (bone) is called?
  112. when creatine phosphate is broken down to creatine + phosphate + E , some of the creatine is converted to the nitrogenous was product _____ which excreted by the _______
  113. Made of many molecules of glucose.
  114. Glucose
    (C6H12O6) + 6O2  --> 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP + Heat
  115. Carries impulses away from the cell body
  116. Located at the end of the motor neuron is synaptic vesicles which contains neurotransmitter. Action potential travels down motor neuron end, it cause synaptic vessicle to release this neurotransmitter that will cross the synapse to bind with receptors.
  117. Cell membrane of muscle fiber, contains inactivator cholinesterase
  118. The small space between the axon terminal and the sarcolemma (membrane of muscle fiber)
  119. Within the muscle fiber, Myofibril, are thousands of individual contracting units. between 2 Z-band
  120. In PNS, myelin sheath made by?
    Schwann Cells
  121. in CNS, myelin sheath made by?
  122. Consist of the brain and spinal cord?
  123. Consists of cranial nerves and spinal nerves?
    Peripheral nervous system PNS
  124. at a synapse, a nerve impulse is carried by?
  125. How many pairs of spinal nerves?
    31 pairs
  126. how many cervical spinal nerves?
  127. how many thoracic spinal nerves?
  128. how many lumbar spinal nerves?
  129. how many sacral spinal nerves?
  130. how many coccygeal spinal nerves?
  131. In reflex arc, this "part" detects a change (the stimulus) and generates impulses.
  132. In reflex arc, this "part" transmits impulses from receptors to the CNS
    sensory neurons
  133. In reflex arc, this "part" contains one or more synapses (Interneurons may be part of the pathway)
  134. In reflex arc, this "part" transmit impulses from the CNS to the effector
    motor neurons
  135. In reflex arc, this "part" performs the characteristic action.
  136. the lobes of the cerebral cortex that contain the sensory areas for vision.
    occipital lobes
  137. "Muscle Fiber-Microscopic Structure"
    In the axon terminal is an enlarge tip of motor neuron. it contains sacs of the neurotransmitter _____.
    Acetylcholine (ACh)
  138. inactivates acetylcholine (ACh) to stop the action or breaks it down.
  139. after loss of a hand, the person may still feel that the hand is really there.  The receptor in the hands are no longer present, but the severed nerve endings continue to generate impulses.
    Phantom Pain (Projection)
  140. some sensation are felt more distinctly and to greater degree than are others. when more receptors are stimulated, more impulses will arrive in the sensory part of the brain.
  141. The effect of a current sensation may be exaggerated when the brain compares it with a previous sensation.
  142. A stimulus is still present, but we become unaware of it.
  143. the stimulus stops, but we remain aware of the sensation.Ex: the ringing in the ear you hear after hearing a loud sound.
  144. For the senses of pain, heat, cold, and itch, the receptors are?
    Free Nerve Endings
  145. For the senses of touch and pressure, the receptors are?
    Encapsulated nerve endings
  146. Found in dermis of skin. Gives us information about changes in external environment.
    Cutaneous Senses
  147. The pain that originates in an internal organ may be felt as?
    Referred Pain
  148. utricle and saccule located in vestibule between cochlea and semicircular canals. impulses stimulated and collected by 8th cranial nerve to cerebellum, midbrain, and temporal lobes of cerebrum.  Cerebellum and midbrain use this info to maintain this?
    • equilibrium at a subconscious level.
    • cerebrum provides awareness.
  149. This gland secretes hormones which enters the capillaries and circulates in the blood.
    Endocrine glands.
  150. target organ are the kidneys. Increases reabsorption of water by the kidneys.  Results of thiss function is urinary output decrease and blood volume increase, which helps BP. aka Vasopressin
    Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
  151. promotes maturation of sperm in the testes. promotes 2ndary sex characteristics: reproducive organ/larynx, facial hair, muscle. stops growth in height by closure of epiphyseal disc.
    Testosterone function.