Surgery Dr Q: Cardiovascular part 2

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Surgery Dr Q: Cardiovascular part 2
2016-01-26 20:20:57

Dr Q Cardiovascular part 2
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  1. Cardiac Cycle Sequence
    • 1. Volume and pressure increases in the atria as they fill by receiving blood from the vena cava and pulmonary veins.
    • 2. A-V valves open when the atrial pressure exceeds the ventricular pressure.
    • 3. Blood flows into the relaxed ventricles. This is 70% of filling. Where is the 30%?
    • 4. Ventricles contract closing the A-V valves and atria relax and start to fill, and increase in pressure opens the semi-lunar valves.
    • 5. Blood is ejected from the ventricles.
    • 6. Ventricles relax, with arterial pressure exceeding the ventricle and semi-lunars close.
  2. When do voltage changes occur
    When the heart muscles depolarizes and repolarizes
  3. Where voltage changes occur due to good conduction
    Body fluids
  4. Voltage changes can be transformed into wave form recording in what?
  5. Instrument used to make recordings of electocardiogram
  6. P wave meaning
    Depolarization of atria
  7. QRS wave complex meaning
    • Ventricular depolarization
    • Repolarization of atria
  8. T wave meaning
    Ventricular repolarization
  9. 1st heard sound caused by
    LUB caused by ventricular contracting and A-V valves closing, louder sound
  10. 2nd heart sound caused by
    DUP, caused by contraction of aorta and pulmonary artery and the semi-lunar valves closing
  11. Systolic and diastolic pressures are measured only where?
    Left ventricle
  12. Why are systolic and diastolic pressures measured only in the left ventricle?
    BP and blood ejection changes are due to specific physical events during cardiac contraction cycle and to closing/opening of the mitral and aortic valves on left side of heart
  13. Pulmonary intercostal space
  14. Aortic intercostal space
  15. Mitral intercostal space
  16. Tricuspid intercostal space
    Right side, 4 and 5
  17. Abnormal heart sound
  18. Volume of blood that flows from either the right or left ventricle of an animal during a given period of time
    Cardiac output
  19. Sum of the volumes of blood ejected from both ventricles over period of time
    Total cardiac output
  20. Increase or decrease in heart rate but implies increase or decrease in function of other organ functions
    Metabolic rate
  21. Increases all heart activities
    Sympathetic innervation
  22. Decreases heart beat
    Parasympathetic innervation
  23. Stretch receptors located in these two places will respond to increase/decrease in blood pressure
    Aortic arch and carotid sinus
  24. Impulses from aortic arch are transmitted via this nerve
    Vagus (10th cranial)
  25. Impulses from carotid sinus are transmitted via this nerve
    Glossopharyngeal (9th cranial)
  26. Homeostasis maintained by variations of BP, respiration, and vascular responses which are controlled by..?
    • 10th cranial nerve
    • 9th cranial nerve
    • Cardio-inhibitory center
    • Vasometer center
  27. BP increased Respiration Increased =
  28. Bainbridge Reflex
    During exercise the stretch receptors transmit impulses through the vagus nerve to the centers (cardio-inhibitory & vasomotor) of the brain resulting in an overall effect to generally increase all activities of the heart and circulatory efforts.
  29. BP decreased Respiration decreased =
  30. Dynamic process where pressure waves resulting from cardiac contraction are transmitted through blood vessels
    Blood pressure
  31. Pulse pressure
    Difference between diastolic and systolic pressure
  32. Mean arterial pressure
    Diastolic pressure plus 1/3 of PP
  33. Requires catheterization of peripheral artery
    Direct (Invasive)
  34. More practical for day to day use for finding BP
    Indirect (Non-invasive)
  35. Primary methods of indirect blood pressure determination
    • 1) Doppler
    • 2) Oscillometric technique
  36. Only measure systolic pressure
  37. Part of the transducer that emits a series of high- frequency sound waves based on arterial blood flow to another transducer
    Instrument amplifier box
  38. Part of the transducer that converts the sound wave to an audible sound
    Doppler probe
  39. Disadvantages of the doppler
    • MAP not determined
    • PP not determined
    • No diastolic pressure so cannot determine in hypo/hypertension
  40. Machine used to demonstrate oscillometric technique
  41. Oscillation amplitude increases until what is reached
  42. What is paramount to uniform measurements of BP
    Position of patient
  43. What percentage of limb circumference should cuff be?
  44. How to prepare surface of animal when using transducer
    • Clip hair
    • Apply coupling gel
    • Apply cuff
  45. If cuff is too wide it will result in what
    Lower reading
  46. If cuff not wide enough will result in
    Higher readings and it will pop off
  47. 3 factors that effect BP
    • Anxiety
    • Natural movement of limbs
    • Pressure of cuff width
  48. Hypotension can result in
    • Shock
    • Sepsis
    • Administration of various meds
  49. Most common complication of anesthesia
  50. Prolonged hypotension leads to
    Hypoxia, cerebral hypoxia, and cardiac muscle ischemia
  51. Manifestations of hypotension
    • Cool extremities
    • Prolonged CRT
    • Diminished consciousness
    • Little to not urine output
  52. Retinal vessels become twisted resulting in retinal edema, hemorrhage, and blindess
    Hypertensive retinopathy
  53. Blood vessel walls become thick leading to reduced blood flow with damage to nephrons
    Kidney failure
  54. Enlargement of left ventricle leads to reduced blood flow, arteries constrict to increase blood pressure
    Left ventricular hypertrophy
  55. Two classifications of hypertension
    • Primary (Idiopathic)
    • Secondary
  56. Diseases known to cause hypertension
    • Cushings syndrome
    • Hyperthyroidism
    • Diabetes mellitus
    • Renal disease
  57. Highest point of arterial pressure obtained where
    Peak of left ventricle contraction (systole)
  58. Lowest pressure in arteries occurs when
    Left ventricle relaxed (diastole)
  59. BP expressed in what measurement
  60. Blood vessels reduce the blood flow but increase the BP
  61. Blood vessels increase the blood flow and decrease the blood pressure
  62. Oxygen reduced its concentration the blood vessels dilate and more blood is permitted to flow so that oxygen is replenished
  63. Refers to the physical factors associated with the exchange of fluid between the blood and interstitial fluid at level of the capillaries
    Capillary dynamics
  64. Two types of colloidal pressure
    • Plasma Colloidal Pressure (oncotic pressure)= 28mmHg
    • Interstitial Fluid Colloidal Pressure = 5 mmHg
  65. Substances that are in particle form when dispersed in solvent, lava lamp like
  66. Imbalance of bulk flow and fluid accumulates in the interstitial spaces
  67. Situations that may be seen with edema
    • High capillary pressure¬†
    • Low blood protein concentration
    • Lymphatic blockage
    • Increased porosity