Vital Signs

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Vital Signs
2015-01-22 07:33:27
Vital Signs
Health Care
oh no..
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  1. Vital Signs is also known as the ___
    cardinal signs
  2. What are the four critical areas
    • body temperature
    • pulse
    • respiration
    • blood pressure
  3. it is used with comparison for later findings
    baseline data
  4. it is the balance between the heat produced by the body and the heat lost from the body
    body temperature
  5. thermal units of a clinical thermometer
  6. is is primarily produced by metabolism
    body heat
  7. it is the heat regulating center
  8. types of body temperature
    • core temperature
    • surface temperature
  9. it is the thermal temperature of the deep tissues in the body
    core temperature
  10. normal core temperature is between ___ inside the body
    36.7 C - 37 C
  11. it is the temperature of the skin, subcutaneous tissue amd fat
    surface temperature
  12. it rises and falls in response to the environment
    surface temperature
  13. factors affecting body's heat production
    • basal metabolic rate
    • muscle activity
    • thyroxine output
    • epinephrine, norepinephrine and sympathetic simulation
    • increase temperature of body cells
  14. process involved in heat loss
    • radiation
    • convection
    • conduction
    • evaporation
  15. it is the transfer of heat from the surface of an object to the surface of another without contact between them
  16. the transfer of heat from one surface to another requiring temperature difference between two surfaces
  17. the dissipation of heat by air currents
  18. the continuous vaporization of moisture from the skin, oral mucus or respiratory tract
  19. factors affecting temperature
    • age
    • time of the day/diurnal variation
    • exercise
    • hormones
    • presence of infection
    • ingestion of hot or cold liquids
    • stress
  20. elder people are at risk of hypothermia due to ___
    • sedentary activity
    • decrease subcutaneous fat
    • inadequate diet
    • decrease thermoregulatory controls
  21. highest temperature of the day is at what time?
    8pm to 12mn
  22. lowest temperature of the day is at what time?
    4am to 6am
  23. alterations in the body temperature
    • pyrexia
    • hyperpyrexia
    • hypothermia
  24. body temperature above normal range
    pyrexia (febrile)
  25. very high fever, 41 C and above
  26. subnormal core body temperature
  27. this may be caused by excessive heat loss, inadequate heat production or impaired hypothalamic function
  28. types of fever
    • intermittent fever
    • remittent fever
    • relapsing fever
    • constant fever
    • fever spike
    • decline fever
  29. the temperature fluctuates between periods of fever and periods of normal or subnormal temperature
    intermittent fever
  30. the temperature fluctuates within a wide range over the 24 hour period but remains above normal range
    remittent fever
  31. the temperature is elevated for a few days, alternated with 1 to 2 days of normal temperature
    relapsing fever
  32. body temperature is constantly high
    constant fever
  33. a temperature that rises for fever level rapidly following a normal temperature and then returns to normal within few hours
    fever spike
  34. it is the sudden decline of fever, this indicates impairment of function of the hypothalamus
    crisis or flush or defervescent stage
  35. this is the gradual decline of fever. this indicates that the body is able to maintain homoeostasis. This is the desired decline of fever
  36. clinical signs of fever
    • onset fever
    • course of fever
    • defervesence
  37. sites of taking body temperature
    • oral
    • axilla
    • aural
  38. most accessible and convenient method
  39. least desirable site for determining body temperature
  40. it is not close to the major blood vessels and is more likely to be affected by the environmental temperature
  41. it is the safest and most non-invasive method of temperature taking
  42. types of thermometer
    • chemical disposable thermometer
    • electronic thermometer
    • temperature sensitive strip
    • infrared thermometer
    • tympanic membrane thermometer
  43. it comes in individual cases and is discarded after use
    chemical disposable thermometer
  44. it can provide reading in only 2-60 seconds depending on the model
    eletcronic thermometer
  45. it is ideally suited for children because the sheath is unbreakable and the time necessary for accurate measurements is relatively short
    electronic thermometer
  46. it is usually applied on the forehead or abdomen and responds to heat by changing color
    temperature sensitive strip
  47. it senses body heat in the form of infrared energy given of by the body paart
    infrared thermometer
  48. it records temperature through a sensor or probe that is placed in the ear canal to detect infrared radiation from the eardrum
    tympanic membrane thermometer
  49. parts of a thermometer
    • stem
    • bulb
    • window
    • button
  50. calibrated in degrees centigrade or fareheit
  51. contains liquid mercury
  52. it expands when heated and rises in the stem
  53. purpose of taking/measuring body temperature
    • to determine if temperature is within normal limit
    • to provide baseline data for further evaluation
    • to determine alterations in disease conditions
  54. from fahrenheit to centigrade
    C= ( F - 32 ) x 5/9
  55. from centigrade to fahrenheit
    F= ( C x 9/5 ) + 32
  56. it is a wave of blood created by contradiction of the left ventricle of the heart
    pulse rate
  57. the pulse rate is regulated by the ___
    autonomic nervous system
  58. it measure how fast or slow the heart is beating
    pulse rate
  59. factors affecting the pulse rate
    • age
    • gender
    • exercise
    • fever
    • medications
    • hemorrhage
    • stress
    • position changes
  60. younger person has higher pulse rate
  61. after puberty, females have higher pulse than males
  62. increase metabolic rate, thereby increasing the pulse rate
  63. digitalis, beta-blockers decrease pulse rate, epinephrine, atrophine, sulfate increase pulse rate
  64. increase pulse rate compensatory mechanism for blood loss
  65. sympathetic nervous stimulation increases the activity of the heart
  66. in sitting or standing position, there is decreased venous return to the heart, decrease bp, therefore increasing pulse rate
    position changes
  67. pulse sites
    • temporal
    • carotid
    • apical
    • brachial
    • radial
    • femoral
    • popliteal
    • posterior tibial
    • dorsalis pedis
  68. the site is superior and lateral to the eye
  69. used when radial pulse is not accesible
  70. at the side of the neck below the lobe of the ear where the artery runs between the trachea and the sterncleidomastoid muscle
  71. for elderly patients who may have impaired circulation
  72. used for infants, during cardiac arrest, to determine circulation of the brain
  73. apical pulse is also referred to as the ___
    apical impulse
  74. it is located at the apex of the heart
  75. an imaginary line dropping straight down from the center of the clavicle
    mid clavicular line
  76. used for infants and children up to 3 y/o
  77. used to determine discrepancies with radial pulse
  78. used in conjuntions with some medications
  79. at the inner aspect of the biceps muscle of the arm or medially in the antecubital space
  80. elbow space
    antecubital space
  81. used to measure blood pressure
  82. used during infant's cardiac arrest
  83. where the radial artery runs along the radial bone, on the thumb side of the inner aspect of the wrist
  84. readily accessible and routinely used
  85. where the femoral artery passes along side the inguinal ligament approximately midway between the anterior iliac spine and the symphysis pubis in the groin area
  86. used in cases in cardiac arrest
    used for infants and children
    used to determine circulation to a leg
  87. where the popliteal artery passes behind the knee
  88. used to determine circulation to the lower leg
    used to determine leg blood pressure
  89. on the medial surface of the ankle, where the posterior tibial artery passes behind the medial malleolus
    posterior tibial
  90. used to determine circulation of the foot and ankle area
    posterior tibial
  91. where the dorsalis pedis artery passes over the the bones of the foot
    dorsalis pedis
  92. used to determine circulation to the foot and toe area
    dorsalis pedis
  93. characters of pulse
    • rate
    • rhythm
    • volume¬†
    • tension
  94. refers to the number of beats per minute
  95. the pattern of beats and the intervals between the beats
    pulse rhythm
  96. the irregularity in rhythm
  97. is the force of blood with each beat
    pulse volume
  98. is a measure of the elasticity of the arteries
    pulse tension
  99. common abnormalities related to pulse rate
    • tachycardia
    • bradycardia
    • arrythmia
    • running pulse
    • feeble, weak or thready
    • water hammering pulse or corrigan's pulse
    • dicrotic pulse
    • pulse deficit
    • intermittent pulse
    • weak or absent pulse
  100. a rate > 100 beats per minute or more for an adult
  101. a rate usually below 50 beats per minute
  102. decreased regular pulse rate
  103. described as a pulse rate that is too fast to be counted
    running pulse
  104. term used for a pulse whose volume is small and can be readily obliterated
    feeble, week or thready
  105. is a pulse with a very forceful beat, with the artery falling away very quickly
    water hammering pulse or Corrigan's pulse
  106. means one heart beat for two arterial pulsations, giving the sensation of a double beat
    dicrotic pulse
  107. is the difference between the apical and readial counts taken simultaneously
    pulse deficit
  108. refers to a pulse that occasionally skip a beat
    intermittent pulse
  109. fading away or palpable pulse
    weak or absent pulse
  110. purpose of taking pulse rate
    • to obtain baseline measurement of the patients heart rhythm and volume
    • to monitor changes in the patient's cardiovascular status
    • to evaluate the reponse of the heart to various therapeutic modalities
    • to evaluate blood flow to an extremity