Cardiovascular system

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MarineLopes
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Cardiovascular system
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2015-01-22 09:36:52
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  1. The specialized group of mesenchymal cells which aggregate to form blood islands are called:

    Hemoblasts

    Hemagioblasts

    Angioblasts

    Fibroblasts

    Yolk sac mesoderm

    Wharton's jelly
    Hemangioblasts
  2. The cardiovascular system (CVS) begins to develop in the 3rd week.

    True 

    False
    True

    The CVS is the 1st organ system to become functional. This happens because at the middle of the 3rd week the embryo is no longer able to satisfy its nutritional needs.
  3. The primitive heart is partitioned into 4 separate chambers during the 4th week.

    True 

    False
    False

    The formation of the 4 chambers begings at the end of the 4th week and ends in the end of the embryonic period.
  4. When does the separation of the heart into 4 cavities begin and end?
    • begining: end of the 4th week
    • end : end of embryonic period
  5. The heart is derived from :

    Splanchnic mesoderm

    Somatic mesoderm

    Septum transversum

    Intermediate mesoderm

    Paraxial mesoderm
    Splanchnic mesoderm
  6. The dorsal mesocardium :

    Diasappears partially and thereby helps to form the transverse pericardial sinus.

    Disappears and helps to form the oblique pericardial sinus.

    Persists as the fibrous pericardium.

    Persists as the endocardium.

    Fuses with the dorsal mesogastrium.
    Disappears partially and thereby helps to form the transverse pericardial sinus.

    Early in the heart development, afterhead folding, the heart tube is suspended by the dorsal mesocardium. As the head folds on itself, the dorsal mesocardium ruptures.
  7. By 13-14 days of development, angiogenic cell clusters have differentiated in the

    Extraembryonic mesoderm of the
    chorion.

    Splanchnic mesoderm in the wall of the yolk sac.

    Connecting stalk.

    Cardiogenic mesoderm.
    • Extraembryonic mesoderm of the chorion
    • Splanchnic mesoderm in the wall of the yolk sac
    • Connecting stalk
    • Cardiogenic mesoderm
  8. The most superior part of the Inf. Vena Cava (IVC) is derived from :

    Left vitelline vein.

    Right vitelline vein.

    Right umbilical vein.

    Left umbilical vein

    Sinus venosus
    Right vitelline vein
  9. The embryonic origin of the ligamebto arteriosum is from the :

    2nd arch artery.

    3rd arch artery.

    4th arch artery.

    5th arch artery.

    6th arch artery.
    6th arch artery.

    Postnatally, ductus arteriosus persists as the ligament arteriosum.
  10. What are the derivatives of the 1st aortic arch?
    Maxillary arteries
  11. What are the derivatives of the 2nd aortic arch?
    • Hyoid arteries
    • Stapedial arteries
  12. What are the derivatives of the 3rd aortic arch?
    • Commo carotid 
    • 1st part of the internal carotid artery. 
    • ( external carotid arteru sprout from here as well)
  13. What are the derivatives of the 4th aortic arch from left side?
    • part of the arch of the aorta
    • left common carotid artery
    • left subclavian artery
  14. What are the derivatives of the 4th aortic arch from right side?
    Right subclavian artery ( proximal part)
  15. What are the derivatives of the 6th  aortic arch from left side?
    • left pulmonary artery.
    • Ductus arteriosus
  16. What are the derivatives of the 6th aortic arch from right side?
    Right pulmonary artery
  17. The bulboventricular ridge of the embryonic heart:

    Persists as the membranous part of the interventricular septum.

    Becomes the upper segment of the muscular interventricular septum.

    Contributes to the formation of the left atrioventricular orifice.

    Gives origin to the trabeculae carnae 

    Disappears without a trace.
    Disappears without a trace
  18. The bulboventricular ridge separates the bulbus cordis from what?
    atrioventricular canla + primitive left ventricle
  19. At birth, the following changes in circulation take place EXCEPT:

    Decrease in pressure in the pleural cavities.

    Closure of ductus venosus.

    Closure of ductus arteriosus.

    Closure of foramen ovale.

    Relaxation of the thoracic diaphragm.
    Relaxation of the thoracic diaphragm.


    • Ductus venosus becomes ligamentum venosum.
    • Ductis aretriosus becomes ligamentum arteriosum.
    • Foramen ovale becames fossa ovalis
  20. The embryonic branchial arch arteries give origin to all of the following postnatal structures EXCEPT:

    Arch of aorta.

    Ligamentum arteriosum.

    Pulmonary arteries.

    Ascending aorta.

    Common carotid arteries.
    Ascending aorta ( derived from the aortic sac and left 4th arch)
  21. The ascending aorta is derived from what?
    • aortic sac
    • left 4th arch
  22. Which is not true:

    Since the fetal liver is an hematopoietic organ, it is large and well supplied with oxygenated blood.

    Fetal brain receives relatively
    pure arterial blood.

    Fetal and maternal vessels anastomose in the  placenta.

    In early developmental stages, one pulmonary vein buds from the left atrium of the heart.

    Foramen primum of the interatrial septum closes after the formation secundum
    • Fetal and maternal blood vessels anastomose in the placenta
    • ( Maternal blood from the spiral arteries entersthe cotyledons, where is baths the villi from the fetus)
  23. Which is of the following is true:

    Since the fetal liver is an hematopoietic organ, it is large and well supplied with oxygenated blood.

    Fetal brain receives relatively pure arterial blood.

    Fetal and maternal vessels anastomose in the  placenta.

    In early developmental stages, one pulmonary vein buds from the left atrium of the heart.

    Foramen primum of the interatrial septum closes after the formation of foramen secundum
    • Since the fetal liver is an hemotopoietic organ, it is large and well supplied with oxygenated blood.
    • Fetal brain receives relatively pure arterial blood
    • In early developmental stages, one pulmonary vein buds from the left atrium of the heart.
    • Foramen primum of the interatrial septum closes after the formation of the foramen secundum.
  24. The following features of the adult human body represent remnants of the fetal circulation EXCEPT:

    Fossa oval.

    Musculi pectinati of the atria.

    Oblique vein of the left atrium.

    Ligamentum arteriosum.

    Ligamentum teres hepatis.
    Musculi pectinati of the atria ( ther are remnants of the wall of the original atrium)
  25. Which of the following features of the adult human body represent remnants of the fetal circulation :

    Fossa oval.

    Musculi pectinati of the atria.

    Oblique vein of the left atrium.

    Ligamentum arteriosum.

    Ligamentum teres hepatis.
    • Fossa ovalis ( foramen ovalis)
    • Oblique vein of the left atrium
    • Ligamentum arteriosum ( ductus arteriosus)
    • Ligamentum venosum ( ductus venosum)
  26. Each of the following statements are correctly paired EXCEPT:

    Right vitelline vein – inferior vena cava.

    Left vitelline vein – liver sinusoids.

    Right anterior cardinal vein – part of superior vena cava.

    Right umbilical vein – definitive umbilical vein.

    Left sinus horn – coronary sinus.
    Right umbilical vein - definitive umbilical vein ( the Right umbilical vein disappears completly)

    the left umbilical vein is the definitive umbilical vein which at birth closes and becomes ligamentum teres hepatis.
  27. Which of the following statements are correctly paired :

    Right vitelline vein – inferior vena cava.

    Left vitelline vein – liver sinusoids.

    Right anterior cardinal vein – part of superior vena cava.

    Right umbilical vein – definitive umbilical vein.

    Left sinus horn – coronary sinus.
    • Right vitelline vein- IVC
    • Left vitelline vein- Liver sinusoids
    • Right Anterior Cardinal vein- part of SVC
    • Left sinus horn - coronary sinus
  28. The blood vessels that carry
    relative "pure" arterial blood during fetal development are:

    Superior vena cava.

    Inferior vena cava below
    liver.

    Pulmonary artery.

    Ascending aorta

    Posthepatic IVC
    • Ascendinh aorta
    • Posthepatic IVC
  29. The Teratology of Fallot includes the following defects of the heart:

    Overriding aorta.

    Aortic stenosis.

    Right ventricular hypertrophy

    Dextroposition of the aorta.

    Left ventricular hypertrophy.

    Atrial septal defect. 

    Pumonary stenosis.

    Ventricular septal defect.
    • Overriding aorta
    • Right ventricular hypertrophy
    • Dextroposition of the aorta
    • Pulmobary stenosis
    • Ventricular septal defect.
  30. The changes that normally occur shortly after birth includes:

    The umbilical veins become the ligamentum venosum.

    Blood flow in lung vessels increases and septum secundum and foramen ovale close.

    Blood flow in the pulmonary arteries is reversed.

    Thymus gland undergoes involution.

    The umbilical arteries become medial umbilical ligaments.

    The umbilical vein becomes the ligamentum teres hepatis.
    • Blood flow in lung vessels increase and septum secundum and foramen ovale close.
    • The umbilical arteries become medial umbilical ligaments.
    • The umbilical vein becomes the ligamentum teres hepatis.
  31. The following embryonic structures are involved in the formation of the definitive right atrium EXCEPT:

    Primitive atrium.

    Right sinus venosus.

    Left sinus venosus.

    Right sinus horn.

    Left sinus horn.
    Left sinus horn ( regresses during development to form coronary sinus . Oblique vein of the left atrium drains to it.)
  32. Which of the following embryonic structures are involved in the formation of the definitive right atrium :

    Primitive atrium.

    Right sinus venosus.

    Left sinus venosus.

    Right sinus horn.

    Left sinus horn.
    • Primitive atrium
    • R. sinus venosus
    • L. sinus venosus
    • R. sinus horn
  33. Each of the following
    associations is correct EXCEPT:

    Right sinus horn – coronary sinus.

    Right vitelline vein – inferior vena cava.

    Right posterior cardinal vein – azygos vein.

    Dorsal mesocardium – transverse sinus of the pericardium.

    Umbilical veins – allantois.
    Right sinus horn- coronary sinus ( to be correct should be left sinus horn- coronary sinus)
  34. Which of the following associations is/are correct :

    Right sinus horn – coronary sinus.

    Right vitelline vein – inferior vena cava.

    Right posterior cardinal vein – azygos vein.

    Dorsal mesocardium – transverse sinus of the pericardium.

    Umbilical veins – allantois.
    • R. vitelline vein - IVC
    • R. posterior cardinal vein - azygos vein
    • Dorsal mesocardium - transverse sinus of the pericardium
    • Umbilical veins- allantois
  35. The Tetralogy of Fallot is characterized by the following features EXCEPT:

    Stenosis of the pulmonary artery.

    Interventricular septal defect.

    Overriding aorta.

    Hypertrophy of the left ventricle.
    Hypertrophy of the left ventricle ( should be right ventricle)
  36. Each of the following normally occurs during the neonatal period EXCEPT:

    Pressure decreases in the thoracic cavity.

    Pressure increases in left atrium.

    Flattening of the alveolar epithelium of the lung.

    Reversal of blood flow in the inferior vena cava.

    Closure of ductus venosus.
    Reversal of blood flow in the inferior vena cava. ( thank god this doesnt happen!)
  37. Which of the following normally
    occurs during the neonatal period EXCEPT:

    Pressure decreases in the thoracic cavity.

    Pressure increases in left atrium.

    Flattening of the alveolar epithelium of the lung.

    Revearsal of blood flow in the inferior vena cava.

    Closure of ductus venosus.
    • Pressure decreases in the thoracic cavity.
    • Pressure increases in the FA
    • Flattening of the alveolar ep. of the lung.
    • CLosure of ductus venosus.
  38. During embryonic and fetal development:

    Venous blood flow from the caudal half of the body is returned by the posterior cardinal veins.

    The pulmonary arteries carry essentially oxygenated blood.

    The prehepatic inferior vena cava carries essentially oxygenated blood.

    The umbilical arteries contains oxygenated blood.
    The venous flow from the caudal half of the body is returned by the posterior cardinal veins.


    • Pulmonary + umbilical arteries - poor oxygenated blood
    • Posthepatic IVC + ductus arteriosus - oxygenated blood
  39. Each of the following ligaments in the adult are derived from fetal blood vessels EXCEPT:

    Median umbilical ligament.

    Medial umbilical ligament.

    Round ligament of liver.

    Ligamentum venosum.

    Ligamentum arteriosum.
    Median umbilical ligament ( remnant of the urachus which is a remnant of the allantois)
  40. Which of the following ligaments in the adult are derived from fetal blood vessels :

    Median umbilical ligament.

    Medial umbilical ligament.

    Round ligament of liver.

    Ligamentum venosum.

    Ligamentum arteriosum.
    • Medial umbilical ligament ( from umbilical arteries)
    • Ligamentum teres hepatis / round ligament of liver ( from umbilical vein)
    • Ligamentum venosum ( from ductus venosus)
    • Ligamentum arteriosum ( from ductus arteriosus)
  41. The heart is derived from :

    Ectoderm

    Mesoderm

    Endoderm

    Cardiogenic region
    • mesoderm
    • cardiogenic region
  42. Of the following, the most closely associated with the ligamentum teres hepatis is :

    Umbilical vein

    Umbilical artery

    Vitelline vein

    3rd aortic arch

    4th aortic arch
    umbilical vein
  43. Of the following the most closely associated with the portak vein is :

    Umbilical vein.

    Umbilical artery

    Vitelline vein

    3 rd aortic arch

    6th aortic arch
    vitelline vein ( the portal vein forms when an anastomose around the duodenum forms one vessel)
  44. Of the following the most closely associated with the common carotid artery is :

    Umbilical vein.

    Umbilical artery

    Vitelline vein

    3 rd aortic arch

    6th aortic arch
    3rd aortic arch
  45. Of the following the most closely associated with the ligamentum arteriosum is :

    Umbilical vein.

    Umbilical artery

    Vitelline vein

    3 rd aortic arch

    6th aortic arch
    6th aortic arch

    • Ligamentum arteriosum comes from ductus arteriosus.
    • Ductus arteriosus is the distal part pf the left 6th aortic arch
  46. Of the following the most closely associated with the medial umbilical ligament is :

    Umbilical vein.

    Umbilical artery

    Vitelline vein

    3 rd aortic arch

    6th aortic arch
    umbilical artery
  47. The truncus ridges may fail to spiral resulting in transposition of the great vessels.

    True.

    False
    True
  48. In the normal fetal circulation, blood from the placenta bypasses the sinusoidal plexus of the liver by way of ductus venosus.

    True.

    False.
    True

    Ductus venosus is a shunt that develops between the left umbilical vein and the posthepatic IVC that allows oxygenated blood from the placenta to bypass the liver sinusoids.
  49. Abnormal origin of the right subclavian artery results from abnormal obliteration of the 7th
    intersegmental artery.

    True.

    False
    False .

    Results from abnormal obliteration of the Right dorsal aorta
  50. The right subclavian artery is normally formed by what?
    • Right 4th aortid arch
    • Proximal part of the right dorsal aorta
    • Right 7th intersegmental artery
  51. In the aortic valvular atresia, blood passes into the aorta through a patent ductus arteriosus.

    True.

    False.
    true
  52. The valve of the foramen ovale is formed by the septum secundum.

    True.

    False
    False 

    Valve of foramen ovale is formed by the septum primum.
  53. The valve of the foramen ovale
    is formed by what?
    Septum primum
  54. The least serious clinical problems can be expected from which of the following cardiac abnormalities?

    Patent ductus arteriosus.

    Mitral valve stenosis.

    Atrial septal defect.

    Dextrocardia or right-sided heart.
    Dextrocardia or right-sided- heart
  55. In tricuspid atresia, there is usually:

    A patent foramen ovale.

    A ventricular septal defect.

    An underdeveloped right ventricle .

    Hypertrophy of the left ventricle.
    • A patent foramen ovale
    • A ventricular septal defect
    • An underdeveloped RV
    • Hypertrophy of the LV
  56. Which of the following does NOT characterize atresia of the valve of the pulmonary artery:

    A patent foramen ovale is the only outlet for blood from the right side of the heart.

    Right ventricle is markedly underdeveloped.

    A patent ductus arteriosus offers a route of blood flow to the lungs.

    There is an overriding aorta.
    There is an overriding aorta ( that's for the tetralogy of fallot)
  57. Which of the following characterize atresia of the valve of the pulmonary artery:

    A patent foramen ovale is the only outlet for blood from the right side of the heart.

    Right ventricle is markedly underdeveloped.

    A patent ductus arteriosus offers a route of blood flow to the lungs.

    There is an overriding aorta.
    • A patent foramen ovale is the only outlet for blood from the right side of the heart.
    • Right ventricle is markedly underdeveloped.
    • A patent ductus arteriosus offers a route of blood flow to the lungs.
  58. The sinus venosus:

    Has a right horn which perisists in the adult as the coronary sinus.

    Has a left venous valve, which develops into the valve of the coronary sinus.

    Forms the smooth-walled portion of the adult right atrium.

    Receives blood directly from
    the portal vein.
    Forms the smooth-walled portion of the adult RA
  59. From where does the valve of the coronary sinus arises?
    Inferior part of the right venous valve
  60. In the development of the cardiovascular system:

    Angiogenic clusters appear in the yolk sac endoderm.

    The midline heart tube forms four chambers.

    The aortic arches develop in a caudal  to  cranial sequence.

    The heart begins to beat around the 21st day.

    Angiogenic cell clusters appear in the mesoderm.
    • The heart begins to beat around day 21
    • Angiogenic cell clusters appear in the mesoderm ONLY.
  61. Concerning the truncus ridges, which statement is NOT correct:

    They may grow abnormally and contribute to formation of transposition of the great vessels.

    They normally spiral around each other as they grow.

    They form the aorticopulmonary septum.

    They contribute to interatrial septum.
    they contribute to interatrial septum
  62. Concerning the truncus ridges,
    which statement is/are correct:

    They may grow abnormally and contribute to formation of transposition of the great vessels.

    They normally spiral around each other as they grow.

    They form the aorticopulmonary septum.

    They contribute to interatrial septum.
    They may grow abnormally and contribute to formation of transposition of the great vessels.

    • They normally spiral around each other as they grow.
    • They form the aorticopulmonary septum.
  63. Ostium secundum defect:

    Is characterized by a large opening between left and right atria.

    May be caused by excessive resorption of septum primum.

    May be caused by inadequate development of septum secundum.

    May be accompanied by intracardiac shunting of blood.
    • Is characterized by a large opening between the LA and RA.
    • May be caused by excessive resorption of septum primum.
    • May be accompanied by intracardiac shunting of blood
  64. In the development of the heart:

    The coronary sinus is formed from the left horn of the left sinus venosus.

    The oblique vein of the left atrium is formed from the left posterior cardinal vein.

    The valve of the coronary sinus is formed from the left sinus valve.

    The valve of the inferior vena cava is formed from the left sinus valve.

    The left common cardinal vein becomes Oblique vein of the left atrium.
    • The coronary sinus is formed from the left horn of the left sinus venosus.
    • The left common cardinal vein becomes the oblique vein of the LA.
  65. The Tetralogy of Fallot includes all of the following EXCEPT:

    Pulmonary stenosis.

    Overriding aorta.

    Right ventricular hypertrophy.

    Atrial septal defect.
    Atrial septal defect
  66. With aortic valvular atresia:

    The left atrium and left ventricle are hyperplastic, or overdeveloped.

    There is an overriding aorta.


    Blood passes into the aorta through a patent ductus arteriosus.

    Blood fails to reach descending aorta
    Blood passes into the aorta through a patent ductus arteriosus
  67. Which of the following associations are correct?

    Ligamentum teres hepatis –umbilical vein.

    Ligamentum venosum – posterior cardinal vein.

    Median umbilical ligaments – umbilical arteries.

    Ligamentum arteriosum – aortic sac.
    Ligamentum teres hepatis - Umbilical vein
  68. In the normal fetal circulation:

    The umbilical arteries carry oxygenated blood from placenta into the embryo.

    Foramen ovale shunts deoxygenated blood from the left to the right side of the heart.

    Blood can enter the pulmonary circulation via the ductus arteriosus.

    Blood from the placenta bypasses the sinusoidal plexus of the liver in the ductus venosus.
    Blood from the placenta bypasses the sinusoidal plexus of the liver in the ductis venosus
  69. At birth, increased pressure in the left atrium is directly caused by:

    Closure of foramen ovale.

    Cessation of placental blood
    flow.

    Closure of ductus venosus.

    Closure of ductus arteriosus.
    Closure of ductus arteriosus

    The cessation of placental blood flow causes a decrease in systemic pressure and pressure in RA , closing foramen ovale
  70. Which of the following associations are correct?

    Patent ductus arteriosus – left 6th aortic arch.

    Double aortic arch – right dorsal aorta.

    Common carotid artery – 3rd aortic arch 

    Double superior vena cava – left anterior cardinal vein.
    • Patent ductus ateriosus - Left 6th aortic arch
    • Double aortic arch - Right dorsal aorta
    • Common carotid artery- 3rd aortic arch
    • Double SVC-Left anterior cardinal vein


    A double aortic arch can be caused by persistence of the right dorsal aorta.

    A double SVC can be caused by the persistence of part of the left anterior cardinal vein.
  71. Partitioning of the atrium is accomplished by growth of:

    Septum primum.

    Septum secundum.

    Both

    Neither
    Both

    • Septum primum growns down to meey the endocardial heart cushions, closing foramen primum.
    • Foramen secundum forms within septum primum, and it will be overlapped by the downgrowth of the septum secundum.
  72. Features of the Tetralogy of Fallot include:

    Interatrial septal defect.

    Stenosis of the pulmonary artery.

    Both

    Neither
    Stenosis of the pulmonary artery
  73. At birth, the distal branches of both internal iliac arteries collapse and persist as the:

    Urachus.

    Lateral umbilical folds.

    Both .

    Neither
    Neither
  74. What do lateral umbilical folds overly?
    inferior epigrastic vessels
  75. The mesenchymal cells which aggregate to form blood islands are called :

    Hemoblasts;

    Mesoblats;

    Hemagioblasts;

    Angioblats;

    Fibroblasts;
    Hemagioblasts
  76. Closure of the foramen primum results from fusion of the:

    Septum secundum and the fused
    endocardial cushions.

    Septum secundum and the septum
    primum.

    Septum primum and septum spurium.

    Septum primum and endocardial cushions.

    Septum primum and sinoatrial
    valves.
    Septum primum and endocardial cushions
  77. The most common type of cardiac septal defect is :

    Muscular type ventricular septal defect ( VSD)

    Secundum type atrial septal defect ( ASD)

    Membranous type VSD

    Primum type ASD

    Sinus venosus
    Membranous type VSD
  78. The most common type of cardiac atrial defect is :

    Muscular type ventricular septal defect VSD

    Secundum type atrial septal defect ASD

    Membranous type VSD


    Primum type ASD

    Sinus venosus
    Secundum type ASD
  79. Congenital heart disease is the most common cardiac condition in childhood and most frequently results from:

    Maternal medication

    Mutant genes

    Rubella virus

    Fetal distress

    Genetic and enviromental factors
    Genetic and enviromental factors
  80. The fetal left atrium is mainly derived from :

    Primitive pulmonary vein

    Primitive atrium

    Right pulmonary vein

    Sinus venarum

    Sinus venosus

    Primitive pulmonary artery

    Left pulmonary vein
    Primitive pulmonary vein
  81. The fetal right atrium is mainly derived from :

    Primitive pulmonary vein

    Primitive atrium

    Right pulmonary vein

    Sinus venarum

    Sinus venosus

    Primitive pulmonary artery

    Left pulmonary vein
    sinus venosus
  82. The most common congenital malformation of the great vessels is :

    Coarctation of the aorta

    Tetralogy of Fallot

    Patent ductus arteriosus

    Persistent left SVC

    Pulmonary semilunar valve stenosis
    Patent ductus arteriosus
  83. Neural crest forms the walls of the great vessels , but not the endothelium of those vessels.

    True

    False
    True

    Neural crest forms the smooth muscle of the walls of the great vessels.
  84. The oblique vein of the left atrium is a remnant of the left common cardinal vein.

    True

    False
    True
  85. The bulbar portion of the developing heart is incorporated such as to form most of the left ventricle.

    True

    False
    False.


    The bulbus cordis of the primitive heart tube leads from the single primitive ventricle into conus cordis and truncus arteriosus.
  86. The conus of the heart forms infundibulum of the right ventricle and the aortic vestibule of the left ventricle.

    True

    False
    True
  87. To adequately form the outflow of the heart, the aortic sac, the truncus arteriosus and the conus cordis must all be separated, and neural crest cells play a major role in this septation.

    True

    False
    True
  88. The remnant of the 1st aortic arrch is:

    Stapedial artery

    Internal Carotid artery

    Maxillary artery

    Common carotid artery

    The 1st arch artery regresses without remnants
    Maxillary artery
  89. The left brachiocephalic vein is derived from:

    Left anterior cardinal vein.

    Left posterior cardinal vein.

    A shunt between left and right posterior cardinal veins.

    Left horn of sinus venosus.

    A shunt between the left and right anterior cardinal veins.
    • Left anterior cardinal vein ( cranial end of vein)
    • A shunt between the left and right anterior cardinal veins ( caudal end of vein)
  90. The aortic sac:

    Is the area immediately distal to the ventricles.

    Is connected to the dorsal aorta via the aortic arch arteries.

    Is preserved as the region of the semilunar valves in the adult heart.

    Is also known as the truncus arteriosus

    Receives blood from the truncus arteriosus and sends it into the aortic arch arteries.
    • Is connected to the dorsal aorta via the aortic arch arteries
    • Receives blood from the truncus arteriosus and sends it into the aortic arch arteries
  91. The crista terminalis is derived from:

    Right horn of the sinus venosus

    Left horn of the sinus venosus

    Primitive atrium

    AV canal

    Right cusp of the valve of the sinus venosus
    Right cusp of the valve of teh sinus venosus

    PICKY QUESTION

    Crista terminalis is the ridge on the inner surface of the RA that demarcates the smooth walled part derived from sinus venosus and the pectinate muscle-containing part from the primitive RA.
  92. The membranous portion of the interventricular septum is formed by:

    Conal ridges.

    Truncal ridges.

    Endocardial cushions.

    Septum primum.

    Muscular portion of the interventricular septum
    • Conal or bulbar ridges
    • Endocardial cushions
    • Muscular portion of the interventricular septum


    Septum primum helps to divide the atria
  93. The region of the atrioventricular canal develops into:

    Semilunar valves

    Atrial septum

    The mitral and tricuspid valves

    The base of the ventricle

    The trabeculated portion of the right atrium
    Mitral and tricuspid valves
  94. The myocardial layer of the heart tube develops from :

    The endocardial tubules

    Dorsal mesocardium

    Cardiac jelly

    Splanchnic mesoderm

    Septum transversum
    Splanchnic mesoderm

    • Myocardium+ Endocardium- splanchnic mesoderm around heart tube 
    • Epicardium - splanchnic mesoderm lining the intraembryonic coelom
  95. The cardiac jelly:

    Separates the endocardium from the myocardium.

    Mediates interations between endocardium and myocardium.

    Resembles a thick basement membrane.

    Becomes the subendocardial connective tissue layer of the heart.
    • Separates the endocardium from the myocardium
    • Mediates interactions between endocardium and mycardium
    • Resembles a thick basement membrane
    • Becomes the subendocardial CT layer of the heart
  96. The epicardium forms from:

    The epimyocardial layer of the heart.

    Dorsal mesocardium over sinus venosus.

    Cardiogenic plate mesoderm.

    Endocardium.
    Epimyocardial layer of the heart ( which derives from the splanchnic mesoderm between heart tubes and intraembryonic coelom in the cardiogenic area)
  97. The arch of the azygs vein is derived from:

    Posterior cardinal vein

    Anterior cardinal vein

    Common cardinal vein

    Supracardinal vein

    Subcardinal vein
    Posterior cardinal vein
  98. Which structure is most important in the formation of the valve of the foramen ovale?

    Ductus arteriosus.

    Ductus venosus.

    Endocardial cushions.

    Septum primum.

    Septum secundum.

    Dorsal mesocardium.

    Truncus arteriosus.

    Truncal ridges.

    Bulbus cordis.

    Sinus venosus.

    Bulboventricular ridge.

    Cardiac jelly.
    Septum primum

    When the upper part of teh septum primum gradually disappears, the remaining part becomes the valve of the oval foramen.


    Septum secundum - associated with the formation of the foramen ovale.
  99. Which structure ruptures to create the transverse pericardial sinus?

    Ductus arteriosus.

    Ductus venosus.

    Endocardial cushions.

    Septum primum.

    Septum secundum.

    Dorsal mesocardium.

    Truncus arteriosus.

    Truncal ridges.

    Bulbus cordis.

    Sinus venosus.

    Bulboventricular ridge.

    Cardiac jelly.
    Dorsal mesocardium
  100. Transposition of the great vessels is most directly related to abnormal development of which of the following:

    Ductus arteriosus.

    Ductus venosus.

    Endocardial cushions.

    Septum primum.

    Septum secundum.

    Dorsal mesocardium.

    Truncus arteriosus.

    Truncal ridges.

    Bulbus cordis.

    Sinus venosus.


    Bulboventricular ridge.

    Cardiac jelly.
    Truncal ridges
  101. Which structure is important for atrial and ventricular septum formation of the atrioventricular valves?

    Ductus arteriosus.

    Ductus venosus.

    Endocardial cushions.

    Septum primum.

    Septum secundum.

    Dorsal mesocardium.

    Truncus arteriosus.

    Truncal ridges.

    Bulbus cordis.

    Sinus venosus.

    Bulboventricular ridge.

    Cardiac jelly.
    Endocardial cushions
  102. What are the sources of the atrioventricular nodes and His bundle?
    • 1.cells in the left wall of the sinus venosus
    • 2.cells from the atrioventricular canal

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