Nervous system, eye and ear

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MarineLopes
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293597
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Nervous system, eye and ear
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2015-01-22 19:35:36
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Nervous system, eye and ear
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  1. Q1. Which structures are derived from the optic cup?

    Neural retina.

    Iris epithelium.

    Pigmented layer of the retina.

    Ciliary body epithelium.
    All
  2. Q2. The optic nerve is derived from what embryonic tissue?

    Neural crest.

    Head mesenchyme.

    Endoderm.

    Mesoderm.

    Ectoderm.
    Ectoderm
  3. Optic nerve derives from:

    Neural crest cells
    Optic stalk
    Optic stalk
  4. Q3. Which portions of the ear are derived from endoderm?

    Semicircular canals.

    Tympanic cavity.

    External auditory meatus.

    Bony labyrinth.

    Cochlea.
    Tympanic cavity (1st pharyngeal pouch)
  5. Which portions of the ear are derived from ectoderm? 

    Semicircular canals.
    Tympanic cavity.
    External auditory meatus.
    Bony labyrinth.
    Cochlea.
    • Semicircular canals. Bony labyrinth. Cochlea. - internal ear (from ectodermal otic placode)
    • External auditory meatus (1st pharyngeal cleft)
  6. Which portions of the ear are derived from 1st pharyngeal pouch? 

    Semicircular canals.
    Tympanic cavity.
    External auditory meatus.
    Bony labyrinth.
    Cochlea.
    Tympanic cavity (endoderm)
  7. Which portions of the ear are derived from the ectodermal otic placode?

    Semicircular canals.
    Tympanic cavity.
    External auditory meatus.
    Bony labyrinth.
    Cochlea.
    • Semicircular canals.
    • Bony labyrinth.
    • Cochlea.
  8. Which portions of the ear are derived from 1st pharyngeal cleft?

    Semicircular canals.
    Tympanic cavity.
    External auditory meatus.
    Bony labyrinth.
    Cochlea.
    External auditory meatus (ectodermal)
  9. Q4. The otic vesicles do not develop into the:

    Membranous cochlea.

    Endolymphatic duct.

    Saccule.

    Otic placodes.
    • Otic placode
    • (develop FROM otic placode)
  10. The otic vesicles develop into the:

    Membranous cochlea or cochlear duct.
    Endolymphatic duct.
    Saccule.
    Otic placodes.
    Utricle.
    Semicircular canals.
    Endolymphatic duct & sac.
    • Membranous cochlea or cochlear duct.
    • Endolymphatic duct.
    • Saccule.
    • Utricle.
    • Semicircular canals.
    • Endolymphatic duct & sac.
  11. Q5. Which of the following structures are derived from mesoderm:

    Optic nerve.

    Retina.

    Iris epithelium.

    Superior oblique muscle.
    • Superior oblique muscle
    • (somitomeric origin)
  12. Which of the following structures is derived from ectoderm:

    Optic nerve.

    Retina.

    Iris epithelium.

    Superior oblique muscle.
    • Optic nerve.
    • Retina.
    • Iris epithelium.

    (arise from optic vesicle, envagination of forebrain -> nervous tissue -> so ectoderm)
  13. Neural crest cells differentiate into:

    Postanglionic sympathetic cell bodies.

    Cells of the inferior mesenteric ganclion.

    Adrenal medullary cells.

    Cells of the enteric plexus.
    All
  14. The ganglia of the autonomic nervous system are derived from:

    Ectoderm.

    Endoderm.
    Ectoderm (neural crest origin)
  15. Of the following, the item most closely associated with the regulation of visceral and endocrine function is:

    Telencephalon.

    Diencephalon.

    Mesencephalon.

    Metencephalon.

    Myelencephalon.


    Diencephalon
  16. Of the following the one most closely associated with the pons is:

    Telencephalon.

    Diencephalon.

    Mesencephalon.

    Metencephalon.

    Myelencephalon.
    Metencephalon.
  17. Of the following the item most closely associated with visual reflexes is:

    Telencephalon.

    Diencephalon.

    Mesencephalon.

    Metencephalon.

    Myelencephalon.
    Mesencephalon
  18. Of the following the one most closely associated with the cerebrum is:

    Telencephalon.

    Diencephalon.

    Mesencephalon.

    Metencephalon.

    Myelencephalon.
    Telencephalon.
  19. Of the following the one most closely associated with the 3rd ventricle is:

    Telencephalon.

    Diencephalon.

    Mesencephalon.

    Metencephalon.

    Myelencephalon.
    Diencephalon.
  20. Myelomeningocele is often associated with a caudal displacement of medulla and a portion of the cerebellum into the vertebral canal.

    True.

    False.
    True
  21. The sympathetic nervous system is derived mostly from neural crest cells.

    True.

    False.
    TRUE
  22. Spina bifida occulta and encephalomeningocele result from a defect in
    the neural tube closure.

    True.

    False.
    FALSE (defect in skeletal system)
  23. Microglial cells arise from gliablasts after the production of neuroblasts has ceased.

    True.

    False.
    FALSE (arise from mesenchyme cells)
  24. Anencephaly is more frequent in females than in males.

    True.

    False.
    TRUE
  25. During maturation of the nervous system:

    Fiber tracts appear to become myelinated about the time they start to function.

    All myelination of nerve fibers is by oligodendroglial cells.

    The first reflexes appear in the caudal region.

    There is no movement of the embryo/fetus until the 15th week.
    Fiber tracts appear to become myelinated about the time they start to function.
  26. Cerebrospinal fluid:

    Is produced by the choroid plexus.

    Circulates in the ventricular system of the brain and in the subarachnoid spaces.

    Re-enters the venous blood at the arachnoid granulations.

    Blockage of its circulation can lead to internal or external hydrocephalus.
    All
  27. In the development of the nervous system:

    There are five primary brain vesicles.

    During the fifth week, each brain vesicle subdivides into 2 parts.

    The pontine flexure is in a direction opposite the mesenphalic and cervical flexure.

    Neural epithelial cells are found in the marginal layer.
    The pontine flexure is in a direction opposite the mesenphalic and cervical flexure.
  28. In the development of the nervous system:

    The sulcus limitans is found in the diencephalon.

    The infundibulum is an outgrowth of the telencephalon that develops into the neutohypophysis.

    Sensory nuclei in the hindbrain lie ventrally to the sulcus limitans.

    The inner ear is derived from surface ectoderm.
    The inner ear is derived from surface ectoderm.
  29. In the development of the nervous system:

    the neural groove forms from the neural plate.

    the neural folds are composed of neuroepithelial cells.

    the neural tube maintains temporary contact with the amniotic cavity via neuropores.

    neuroepithelial cells give rise to both neuroblasts and gliablasts.
    All
  30. Identify the correct association:

    Basal plate – sensory neurons.

    Mantle layer – neuroblasts.

    Marginal layer – grey matter.

    Alar plate – choroid plexus.
    Mantle layer – neuroblasts.
  31. With respect to the nervous system, which of the following is not correct:

    Muscle’s nerve supply can be used as an indicator of its level of origin and path of migration.

    Rathke’s pouch is an outgrwoth of oral ectoderm that becomes the anterior lobe of the hypophysis.

    The sulcus limitans marks the boundary between motor and sensory areas.

    Sensory nuclei in the hindbrain lie vental to motor nuclei.
    Sensory nuclei in the hindbrain lie vental to motor nuclei. (lie dorsal)
  32. In the list below, which embryonic structures are correctly matched with
    the adult structure and function?

    Mesencephalon - colliculi - visual and auditory reflexes.

    Metencephalon – medulla – reflex center.

    Telencephalon – thalamus – sensory relay and integration.

    Telencephalon – cerebellum – motor coordination.
    Mesencephalon - colliculi - visual and auditory reflexes.
  33. Myelination:

    Is accomplished by neurilemma or schwann cells in peripheral nerves.

    Is accomplished by oligodendroglial cells within the spinal cord.

    Continues after birth.

    Is related to function.
    All
  34. Hydrocephalus:

    Exhibits decreased accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the ventricles or between the brain and dura mater.

    Is accompanied by an excessive amount of amniotic fluid.

    May be caused by an obstruction of the aqueduct of sylvius.

    May be caused by an absence of the choroid plexus.
    May be caused by an obstruction of the aqueduct of sylvius.
  35. Spina bifida cystica and meningoencephalocele:

    Are often caused by failure of the neural tube to close.

    Have their inception during the fourth week of development.

    Always occur together in the affected individual.

    Have as their primary cause a defect in the development of the bone.
    Have as their primary cause a defect in the development of the bone.
  36. Meningoencephalocele:

    Is due to failure of the neural tube to close.

    Is often associated with displacement of medulla and some cerebellum into the vertebral canal.

    Most frequently is located in the cervical cord region.

    Is not related to hydrocephaly.
    Is often associated with displacement of medulla and some cerebellum into the vertebral canal.
  37. Anencephaly:

    Is the result of the cephalic part of the neural tube to form.

    Has its inception during the fifth week of development.

    Is more seen in females than in males.

    Is accompanied by a deficiency in amniotic fluid production.
    Is more seen in females than in males.
  38. Congenital absence of neural crest cells could result:

    Absence of sympathetic chain ganglia.

    Facial malformations.

    Absence of renal medulla.

    Absence of pigment cells.
    All
  39. Which of the following is usually associated with anencephaly?

    Macrocephalus.

    Hydrocephalus.

    Cranioschisis.

    Microcephalus.

    Conical cranium.
    Cranioschisis.
  40. The metencephalon forms the:

    Cerebellum.

    Medulla oblongata.

    Pons.
    • Cerebellum
    • Pons
  41. The mesencephalon differentiates into:

    Cerebellum.

    Medulla oblongata.

    Neither.
    Neither.
  42. The brain flexure which develops between the metencephalon and the
    myencephalon is called the:

    Pontine.

    Hindbrain.

    Cervical.

    Cephalic.

    Midbrain.
    Pontine
  43. The lateral longitudinal groove in the surface of the developing spinal
    cord is the:

    Neural groove.

    Cuneate groove.

    Sulcus limitans.

    Longitudinal groove.

    Transverse fold.
    Sulcus limitans
  44. At birth, the caudal end of the spinal cord lies at which vertebral level? 

    3rd sacral
    1st sacral
    3rd lumbar
    1st lumbar
    12th thoracic
    3rd lumbar
  45. Which cranial nerve is the lowest numbered cranial nerve arising from the myelencephalon?
    Glossopharyngeal n IX (question 38)

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