Ovultation to implantation

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MarineLopes
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Ovultation to implantation
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2015-01-22 14:57:31
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  1. All of the following are directly involved with
    the implantation process except:

    Decidual reaction.

    Progesterone.

    Epiblast.

    Invasion.
    Epiblast 

    Decidual reaction of the endometrium creates a nourishing enviroment for the conceptus as it buries itself by invasion of the uterine endometrial wall.

    Progesterone produced by corpus luteum stimulates glandular secretion in the endometrium during the secretory phase of menstruation.
  2. The seven-day blastocyst:

    Has a single layer of trophoblast at the embryonic pole.

    Has an amniotic cavity.

    Is attached to the endometrial epithelium.

    Is surrounded by degenerated zona pellucida.

    Is called hypoblast.
    Is attached to the endometrial epithelium
  3. When does the amniotic cavity form?
    2nd week
  4. In what day does the implantation begin?
    6th day
  5. As implantation begin, trophoblast divides into what?
    • syncytiotrophoblast
    • cytotrophoblast
  6. The inner mass cell divides into what?
    • Epiblast
    • Hypoblast
  7. Which of the following are classified as
    gonadotropin hormones?

    FSH.

    GnRH.

    Estradiol or estrogen.

    Progesterone.

    LH
    • FSH ( follicle development)
    • LH ( ovulation)
  8. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone is synthesized where? And acts on what?
    • synthesis: hypothalamus
    • Action : ant pit
  9. Haploid nuclei that fuse at fertilization are
    called:

    Homunculi.

    Mitotic figures.

    Centrioles.

    Nucleoli.

    Pronuclei.
    Pronuclei
  10. The first week of human development is
    characterized by the formation of the:

    Inner cell mass.

    Hypoblast.

    Trophoblast.

    Blastocyst.

    Blastocyst cavity

    Syncytiotrophoblast&cytotrophoblast
    • Inner cell mass.
    • Hypoblast.
    • Trophoblast.
    • Blastocyst.
    • Blastocyst cavity
    • Syncytiotrophoblast&cytotrophoblast
  11. During follicular phase of the menstrual cycle:

    FSH binds to corpus luteum and stimulates
    estrogen production.

    FSH binds to granulosa cells of the follicle and stimulates estrogen production.

    FSH binds to corpus luteum and stimulates
    progesterone production.

    FSH binds to granulosa cells of the follicle and stimulates LH production.

    The LH surge, caused by increased estrogen,  stimulates ovulation after which corpus luteum produces progesterone
    FSH binds to granulosa cells of the follicle and stimulates estrogen production.

    The LH surge, caused by increased estrogen, stimulates ovulation after which corpus luteum produces progesterone.
  12. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone or GnRH:

    Acts on the hypothalamus, causing release of FSH and LH.

    Is released once a month from the corpus luteum.

    Acts on the anterior pituitary gland, causing
    release of FSH and LH 

    Acts on the anterior pituitary gland, causing
    release of progesterone and estrogen

    Is one of those meaningless substances that
    scientists play with in lieu of working for a living.
    Acts on the anterior pituitary gland , causing release of FSH and LH
  13. The LH surge:

    Results in ovulation.

    Triggers resumption of meiosis within the oocyte.

    Is caused by a positive feedback effect of the estrogen.
    • Results in ovulation
    • Triggers resumption of meiosis within the oocyte
    • Is caused by a positive feedback effect of estrogen.
  14. The luteal/progestational/secretory phase of the
    menstrual cycle is characterized by:

    High circulating levels of FSH and LH.

    High circulating levels of progesterone.

    An extreme variation in length from cycle to
    cycle.

    A thin, non-vascularized
    epithelium

    Thick endometrial lining
    • High circulatinh levels of progesterone
    • Thick endometrial lining
  15. The second polar body:

    Is released upon stimulation of the follicle by FSH.

    Is released as a result of the LH surge.

    Is released after fertilization.

    Is released after pronuclear formation.

    Is also known as the sowth pole.
    Is released after fertilization.
  16. The corpus luteum:

    Is only functional during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle.

    Has receptors for progesterone and estrogen.

    Is rescued from decline by hCG secreted by the implanting embryo.

    Produces both FSH and LH.

    Corpus luteum is mantained as corpus luteum of pregnancy which secretes progesterone and estrogen.
    • Is rescued from decline by HCG secreted bythe implanting embryo.
    • Corpus luteum is mantained as corpus luteum of pregnancy which secretes progesterone and estrogen.
  17. During implantation, the blastocyst:

    Implants in the endometrium.

    Usually attaches to endometrial epithelium at its embryonic pole.

    Usually implants in the posterior wall of the
    body of the uterus.

    Causes change in the endometrial tissues.
    • Implants in the endometrium.
    • Usually implants in the posterior wall of the body of uterus
    • Usually attaches to endometrial epithelium at its embryonic pole.
    • Causes change in the endometrial tissues

    IMPLANTATION OCCURS WHEN THE TROPHOBLAST CELLS AT THE EMBRYONIC POLE SECRETE PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES THAT ALLOW THE BLASTOCYST TO PENETRATE THE WALL OF THE UTERUS,
  18. Capacitation of the sperm:

    Is caused by zona pellucida.

    Occurs in the male.

    Prevents polyspermy.

    Occurs within the female genital tract.

    Is essential for fertilization.

    Removes head of the sperm.

    Exposes the acrosome.
    • Occurs within the female genital tract
    • Is essential for fertilization
    • Exposes the acrosome

    Capacitation involves removing the glycoprotein coat and the seminal plasma proteins from the head of the sperm.
  19. The most significant factors in sperm transport to the vicinity of the oocyte is:

    Sperm flagellum (tail).

    Vaginal cilia.

    An intact zona pellucida.

    Smooth muscle contractions.

    Gravity.

    Oviductal cilia
    • Smooth muscle contrations
    • Oviductal cilia
  20. The early stages of cleavage are characterized by:

    Formation of a hollow ball of cells.

    Formaton of zona pellucida.

    Increase in size of the cells of the zygote.

    Increase in number of the
    cells of tha zygote

    Increase in size
    Increase in the number of the cells of the zygote
  21. The most common site for implantation in ectopic pregnancy is:

    Internal os of the uterus.

    Mesentery.

    Ovary.

    Uterine tube.

    Other.
    Uterine tube
  22. During the morula stage:

    Tight junctions appear between peripheral cells, isolating the inner cells from uterine fluid.

    The location of the cells dictates their fate.

    The outer cells pump fluid, creating a
    fluid-filled blastocoele.

    Attachment to the uterine epithelium has not yet occurred.
    • Tight junctions appear between peripheral cells, isolating the inner cells from uterine fluid.
    • The location of the cells dectates their fate.
    • The outer cells oump fluid , creating a fluid-filled blastocoele
    • Attachment to the uterine epithelium has not yet occured.
  23. Capacitation of the spermatozoa is an activation process that involves changes in the surface coat and plasma membrane over the:

    Tail.

    Body.

    Neck.

    Acrosome.

    Nucleus.
    Acrosome
  24. Implantation will not take place unless the zona _____ is lost.

    Pellucida.

    Limitans.

    Orbicularis.

    Corona.

    Oophorus.
    Pellucida
  25. When does zona pellucida desappears?
    day 4
  26. The results of fertilization include the
    determination of chromosomal sex, initiation of cleavage and restoration of the diploid number of chromosome.

    True.

    False.
    True
  27. What are the results of fertilization? (3)
    • Determination of chromosomal sex
    • Iniation of cleavage
    • Restoration of diploid number of chromosome
  28. Before a spermatozoan can fertilize an ovum:

    The cell membrane is removed from the spermatozoan head.

    The zona pellucida must be shed.

    The acrosomal membrane must be perforated.

    The tailpiece is lost.

    The decidua reaction must occur.
    The acrosome membrane must be perforated

    The decidua reaction occurs only AFTERA fertilization.
  29. At fertilization:

    The haploid number of chromosomes is restored.

    The chromosomal sex is determined.

    Cleavage is inhibited.

    The inner cell mass becomes recognizable.

    Initiation of cleavage occurs.

    The ovum becomes the blastocyst.

    The diploid number of chromosomes is restored.
    • The chromosomal sex is determined.
    • Initiation of cleavage occurs
    • The diploid number of chromosomes is restored.
  30. Which of the following events are directly
    related to implantation?

    Interaction between uterine epithelium and
    hypoblast.

    Release of protelytic enzymes.

    Loss of decidua.

    Acrosome reaction.

    Capacitation

    Loss of zona pellucida
    • Release of proteolytic enzymes
    • Loss of zona pellucida
  31. In ectopic pregnancy:

    The placenta overbridges the internal os of the uterus.

    Implantation is inside the uterus.

    Severe bleeding is present during vaginal
    delivery.

    The most common site is the uterine tube.
    the most common site is the uterine tube (oviduct).

    Placenta previa : when the placenta overbridges the internal os of the uterus AND causes severe bleeding during vaginal delivery.
  32. Aproximately of many million sperm are there in the average ejaculate of 3.5 cc?

    5.

    10.

    50.

    100.

    more than 200.
    More than 200
  33. The meeting and union of human sex cells is
    believed to occur in the:

    Upper third of the oviduct.

    Middle third of the oviduct.

    Lower third of the oviduct.

    Uterus.

    Cervix. 

    Ampullary region
    Upper third of the oviduct = ampullary region
  34. How are the sperm transported to the ampullary region?
    • Muscular contractions 
    • Cilia of oviduct
  35. Sexuality is established at the time of:

    Ovulation.

    Gametogenesis.

    Histogenesis.

    Morphogenesis.

    Fertilization
    Fertlization
  36. Cleavage divisions are always:

    Meiotic.

    Mitotic.

    Amniotic.

    Anucleotic.

    By binary fission.
    Mitotic
  37. At which of the following stages of development
    is division of embryonic material likely to result in normal monozygotic
    twinning?

    2-cell stage.

    Morula.

    Blastocyst.

    Implanting embryo.

    Bilaminar germ disc
    • 2-cell stage
    • Morula
    • Blastocyst
    • Implanting embryo
    • Bilaminar germ disc.
  38. With the light microscope, the zona pellucida
    appears as a translucent membrane surrounding the:

    Primary oocyte.

    Zygote.

    Morula.

    Very early blastocyst.
    • Primary oocyte
    • Zygote
    • Morula
    • Very early blastocyst

    • The zona pellucida persists until early in the blastocyst stage.
    • It dissolves during the blastocyst stage in order to implantation to occur
  39. The fifth day of human development is
    characterized by embryonic cells of the:

    Inner cell mass.

    Embryonic hypoblast.

    Epiblast.

    Primitive streak.

    Amnion.
    Inner cell mass

    • Primitive streak does not form until 3rd week.
    • inner cell mass= embryoblast
  40. The ______ is/are part of the 4-day embryo.

    Syncytiotrophoblast.

    Blastocyst cavity.

    Notochord.

    Somitomeres.
    Blastocyst cavity
  41. It is approximately correct to compute the age of the embryo from the fourteenth day after the:

    Onset of last menstruation.

    Last sexual intercourse.

    Last full moon.

    Last missed menstrual cycle.

    Onset of breast changes.
    Onset of last menstruation
  42. As the conceptus begins to sink into the uterine lining, it is characterized by a central cavity surrounded for the most part by
    a single layer of cells. At this stage for conceptus is called:

    Zygote.

    Morula.

    Blastocyst.

    Trophoblast.

    Syncytiotrophoblast.

    Cytotrophoblast.

    Blastocele.

    Inner cell mass.

    Blastomere.

    Embryoblast.

    Zonna pellucida.
    Blastocyst

    • The blastocyst cavity/blastocoele forms within the morula transforming it into blastocyst. 
    • The trophoblast is the single layer of cells surrounding the blastocoele. 
    • The trophoblast differentiates into : 
    • a) Syncytiotrophoblast (outer)
    • b) Cytotrophoblast (inner)

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