CHEM& 121 Exam 1: Misc.
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- Generally made from one thing.
- Can consist of an element (one building block) or a compound (multiple).
- More than one thing mixed together.
- Homogenous: it CANNOT be separated (tea with dissolved sugar).
- Heterogenous: it CAN be separated (beef stew).
- Can go back and forth from changes.
- I.e. water melting on concrete.
- Only ONE directional; can't go back without effort.
- I.e. car turning rusty.
Each row of the periodic table.
- Each column going down the periodic table.
- The top (main) columns are 1A-8A.
- 7 of them.
- H, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I.
- ALL of them have a subscript of 2.
Finding the number of protons, neutrons, electrons, and atomic mass of an atom?
- Atomic Mass: Adding the protons and neutrons.
- Protons: Equal to the Atomic #, or the Atomic Mass minus the neutrons.
- Neutrons: Atomic mass minus the protons.
- Electrons: Equal to the protons if charge is 0. If not and the charge is +, then you would subtract the amount. If -, then add the amount of electrons from protons.
Finding the core charge of an atom?
- # of protons - # of core electrons = core charge
- I.e: LITHIUM 3 protons (all together) - 2 core electrons (the inner shell of orbital, or # of periods down PTE) = 1+ core charge
- Going down a column↓, atomic size increases⇧
- Going across a row→, atomic size decreases ⇩
- Decreases going down a column ⇊
- Increases going across a row ⇈
- Electrons are transferred between Metals (gives up) & Nonmentals (accepts elec).
- Cation: # of protons is larger than electrons (POSITIVE).
- Anion: # of electrons if larger than protons (NEGATIVE).
- Group 1A: 1+ (gives up 1 e)
- Group 2A: 2+ (gives up 2 e)
- Group 3A: 3+ (gives up 3 e)
- Group 5A: 3- (accepts 3 e)
- Group 6A: 2- (accepts 2 e)
- Group 7A: 1- (accepts 1 e)
- Center of the Periodic Table.
- They change with the environment.
- Roman numerals are used to indicate the charge and to distinguish the cations.
Naming Ionic Compounds
- Metal always comes first!
- Nonmetal has the -ide ending.
- NaCl → Sodium and Chlorine → Sodium Chloride
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