CHEM& 121 Exam 1: Misc.

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Author:
tgherasim
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293610
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CHEM& 121 Exam 1: Misc.
Updated:
2015-01-23 21:22:26
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chemistry
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Practice cards for the first exam.
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  1. Pure Substance?
    • Generally made from one thing.
    • Can consist of an element (one building block) or a compound (multiple).
  2. Mixture?
    • More than one thing mixed together.
    • Homogenous: it CANNOT be separated (tea with dissolved sugar).
    • Heterogenous: it CAN be separated (beef stew).
  3. Physical Change/Properties?
    • Can go back and forth from changes.
    • I.e. water melting on concrete.
  4. Chemical Changes/Properties?
    • Only ONE directional; can't go back without effort.
    • I.e. car turning rusty.
  5. Periods?
    Each row of the periodic table.
  6. Group/Family?
    • Each column going down the periodic table.
    • The top (main) columns are 1A-8A.
  7. Diatomic Elements
    • 7 of them.
    • H, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I. 
    • ALL of them have a subscript of 2.
  8. Finding the number of protons, neutrons, electrons, and atomic mass of an atom?
    • Atomic Mass: Adding the protons and neutrons.
    • Protons: Equal to the Atomic #, or the Atomic Mass minus the neutrons.
    • Neutrons: Atomic mass minus the protons.
    • Electrons: Equal to the protons if charge is 0. If not and the charge is +, then you would subtract the amount. If -, then add the amount of electrons from protons.
  9. Finding the core charge of an atom?
    • # of protons - # of core electrons = core charge
    • I.e: LITHIUM 3 protons (all together) - 2 core electrons (the inner shell of orbital, or # of periods down PTE) = 1+ core charge
  10. Atomic Size
    • Going down a column↓, atomic size increases⇧
    • Going across a row→, atomic size decreases ⇩
  11. Ionization Energy
    • Decreases going down a column ⇊
    • Increases going across a row ⇈
  12. Ionic Bonds
    • Electrons are transferred between Metals (gives up) & Nonmentals (accepts elec).
    • Cation: # of protons is larger than electrons (POSITIVE).
    • Anion: # of electrons if larger than protons (NEGATIVE).
  13. Group Charges
    • Group 1A: 1+ (gives up 1 e)
    • Group 2A: 2+ (gives up 2 e)
    • Group 3A: 3+ (gives up 3 e)
    • Group 5A: 3- (accepts 3 e)
    • Group 6A: 2- (accepts 2 e)
    • Group 7A: 1- (accepts 1 e)
  14. Transition Metals
    • Center of the Periodic Table.
    • They change with the environment.
    • Roman numerals are used to indicate the charge and to distinguish the cations.
  15. Naming Ionic Compounds
    • Metal always comes first!
    • Nonmetal has the -ide ending.
    • NaCl → Sodium and Chlorine → Sodium Chloride

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