USMLE 19

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rere_girl4ever
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293613
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USMLE 19
Updated:
2015-01-23 13:04:13
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USMLE
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USMLE 19
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USMLE 19
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  1. What does the Falciform ligament connect?
    • Liver to anterior abdominal wall
  2. This ligament connects the liver to the anterior abdominal wall.
    Falciform ligament
  3. Which structures are contained in the Falciform ligament?
    Ligamentum teres hepatis (derivative of fetal umbilical vein)
  4. This ligament contains the ligamentum teres hepatis.
    Falciform ligament
  5. This structure is a derivative of the fetal umbilical vein. In which ligament is it contained?
    • Ligamentum teres hepatis 
    • Contained in the Falciform ligament which connects the liver to the anterior abdominal wall.
  6. Where is the Falciform ligament derived from?
    Ventral mesentery
  7. What does the hepatoduodenal ligament connect?
    • Liver to duodenum
  8. This ligament connects the liver to duodenum.
    Hepatoduodenal ligament (derivative of lesser omentum)
  9. Which structures are contained in the Hepatoduodenal ligament?
    • Proper hepatic artery
    • Portal vein
    • Common bile duct
  10. What does the Gastrohepatic ligament connect?
    • Liver to lesser curvature of the stomach

  11. This ligament connects the liver to the lesser curvature of the stomach.
    Gastrohepatic ligament
  12. The lesser omentum is divided into two ligaments. What are they?
    • 1. Hepatoduodenal ligament
    • 2. Gastrohepatic ligament
  13. Which structures are contained in the gastrohepatic ligament?
    Gastric arteries
  14. This ligament contains the gastric arteries.
    • Gastrohepatic ligament
    • Conncts the liver to the lesser curvature of the stomach
  15. What does the gastrocolic ligament connect?
    • Greater curvature and transverse colon
  16. This ligament connects the greater curvature of the stomach to the transverse colon.
    • Gastrocolic ligament
  17. This ligament contains the gastroepiploic arteries.
    Gastrocolic ligament
  18. Which structures are contained in the Gastrocolic ligament?
    • Gastroepiploic arteries/ Gastro-omental arteries

  19. What does the gastrosplenic ligament connect?
    • Greater curvature and spleen
  20. This ligament connects the greater curvature and the spleen.
    • Gastrosplenic ligament
  21. Which structures are contained in the gastospenic ligament?
    • Short gastrices
    • Left gastroepiploic vessels
  22. The short gastrics are contained in this ligament.
    Gastrosplenic ligament
  23. The left gastroepiploic vessels are contained in this ligament.
    Gastrosplenic ligament
  24. What does the splenorenal ligament connect?
    Spleen to posterior abdominal wall
  25. This ligament connects the spleen to the posterior abdominal wall.
    Splenorenal ligament
  26. This ligament contains the splenic artery.
    Splenorenal ligament
  27. This ligament contains the splenic vein.
    Splenorenal ligament
  28. This ligament contains the tail of the pancreas.
    Splenorenal ligament
  29. Which structures are contained in the Splenorenal ligament?
    • Splenic artery and vein
    • Tail of pancreas
  30. In females, no fusion of the urogenital folds result in?
    Formation of the labia minora
  31. In males, incomplete fusion of the urogenital/ urethral folds result in?
    Hypospadias- abnormal opening of penile urethra on ventral surface of the penis
  32. What causes Hypospadias?
    Failure of the urethral folds to fuse in males results in an abnormal opening of penile urethra on the ventral surface of the penis.
  33. Where does the labia minora form from?
    Nonfusion of the urethral folds
  34. What does the urethral folds become in males and females respectively?
    • Ventral shaft of the penis (penile urethra) in males.
    • Labia minora in females.
  35. What causes Epispadias?
    Faulty positioning of the genital tubercule causes abnormal positioning of penile urethra on dorsal surface of penis.
  36. What does the genital tubercule develop into?
    • Penis and Clitoris
    • Corpus cavernosum and spongiosum
    • Vestibular bulbs
  37. What causes a bifid scrotum?
    Bifid scrotum (2 separate sacs) results from the malunion of labioscrotal folds
  38. What does the labioscrotal swelling differentiate to in males and females respectively?
    • Scrotum
    • Labia majora
  39. Where does the scrotum differentiate from?
    Labioscrotal swelling
  40. Where does the labia majora develop from?
    Labioscrotal swelling
  41. Deletion of a single nucleotide causes this type of mutation.
    Frameshift mutation
  42. What is a frameshift mutation?
    • Deletion or insertion of any number of nucleotides that are NOT multiples of three.
    • Usually results in a nonfunctional protein
  43. What is a conservative mutation?
    A type of missense mutation in which one amino acid is replaced with another amino acid that has similar biochemical characteristics.
  44. What is a Missense mutation?
    • Nucleotide substitution resulting in changed amino acid.
    • It is called conservative if the new amino acid is similar in chemical structure.
  45. What is a nonsense mutation?
    Nucletide substitution resulting in early stop codon- UAA, UGA, UAG
  46. What toxicity can arise from the use of Halothane?
    Hepatotoxicity- occurs after surgery
  47. Why is it that antibodies do not confer immunity against hepatitis C virus?
    • Because there are variations in the antigenic structure of the virus.
    • Also, there is no proofreading 3'→5' exonuclease activity in the RNA polymerase. As a result, there are many uncorrected mutations.
  48. How do we calculate filtration fraction?
    • FF= GFR/RPF
    • (RPF=Renal plasma flow)
  49. What are the effects of ureteral constriction on filtration fraction and GFR?
    ↓FF and ↓GFR
  50. What causes Classic galactosemia?
    • Absense of galactose-1-phosphate-uridyltransferase
    • Converts Galactose-1-Phosphate → Glucose-1-Phosphate
  51. In this disease, there is a deficiency of galctose-1-phosphate-uridyltransferase.
    • Classic galactosemia
    • Cant convert Galactose-1-Phosphate to Glucose-1-phosphate
  52. Describe the presentation of Classic galactosemia.
    • Presents as failure to thrive soon after breastfeeding is begun
    • Vomiting
    • Jaundice
    • Hepatomegaly
    • Infantile cataracts
    • Intellectual disability
  53. What complication can arise from Classic galactosemia?
    Can lead to E.coli sepsis in neonates
  54. How do we treat classic galactosemia?
    Exclude galactoe and lactose (galactoe + glucose) from diet.
  55. What is Generalized anxiety disorder?
    • Anxiety lasting>6 months
    • Excessive worry over several different issues accompanied by sleep disturbance, fatigue, GI disturbance, difficulty concentrating

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