Research Exam 1: chapter 4
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Research Exam 1: chapter 4
Exam 1 ch. 4
What is the difference between a directional and nondirectional hypothesis
Directional (pos/neg, more/less)
Nondirectional: there is a change but not specific
Describe the theory-research relationship
theory > hypothesis > observation > confirmation or vice versa
What proposition tends to be at a higher level of abstraction? It is broad and vague.
What are definitions that are broad "whats driving my study"
What are definitions that specify more clearly
what are definitions that include how your going to measure it
What two key elements are in a research question?
phenomena of interest
What must you look at within the independent variable?
temporal nature (doesn't precede the other)
Do all research questions have all components of PICO?
Do all research questions have a comparison?
What is a statement about what you expect to change?
What type of hypothesis tells us what we specifically expect to change?
During the theory/research relationship, what type of research method is involved if it starts with theory? (quantitative or qualitative??)
During the theory/research relationship, what type of research method is involved when it starts with confirmation? (Quantitative or qualitative??)
Qualitative (creating a theory about what you saw)
Can a speculation and collection of a proposition prove a theory ?
How do we make sure research was done in a safe well thought out manner that protects humans
Protect human rights
understand informed consent
understand institutional review of research
balance benefits/risk in a study
What is a situation in which the rights of study participants are in direct conflict with requirements for a rigorous study
ethical dilemma in conducting research
3 types of consent
types of external review
human subject committee
What is selecting a group of people, events, behaviors, or other elements with which to conduct a study
What is the entire set of individuals that meet sampling criteria
What is the portion of target population to which the researcher has reasonable access
what is an individual unit of a population
What is written in a positive statement that is included in study that will specifically define our population
What is negative, not included in study that will specifically define our population
what is extending the findings of a sample study to a larger population
what influences a generalization
quality and consistency of study
What is a repeating study and keeping it as true to the second study to expand info
What is the sample the accessible population, and the target population are alike in as many ways as possible
What needs to be evaluated under representativeness
values on variables
what is an error of the difference in the population and the sample? (mean reading)
what is the percentage of subjects that declined to participate in the study
what is the withdrawal or loss of subjects from a study?
What increases the representativeness of the sample based on target population
What is a listing of every member of the population, using the sampling criteria to define membership
What are outline strategies used to obtain a sample for a study