Research Exam 1: chapter 4

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Research Exam 1: chapter 4
2015-01-22 20:07:27
Exam 1 ch. 4
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  1. What is the difference between a directional and nondirectional hypothesis
    Directional (pos/neg, more/less)

    Nondirectional: there is a change but not specific
  2. Describe the theory-research relationship
    theory > hypothesis > observation > confirmation or vice versa
  3. What proposition tends to be at a higher level of abstraction? It is broad and vague.
    Theoretical proposition
  4. What are definitions that are broad "whats driving my study"
  5. What are definitions that specify more clearly
  6. what are definitions that include how your going to measure it
  7. What two key elements are in a research question?
    • phenomena of interest
    • population
  8. What must you look at within the independent variable?
    temporal nature (doesn't precede the other)
  9. Do all research questions have all components of PICO?
  10. Do all research questions have a comparison?
  11. What is a statement about what you expect to change?
  12. What type of hypothesis tells us what we specifically expect to change?
  13. During the theory/research relationship, what type of research method is involved if it starts with theory? (quantitative or qualitative??)
  14. During the theory/research relationship, what type of research method is involved when it starts with confirmation? (Quantitative or qualitative??)
    Qualitative (creating a theory about what you saw)
  15. Can a speculation and collection of a proposition prove a theory ?
  16. How do we make sure research was done in a safe well thought out manner that protects humans
    • Protect human rights
    • understand informed consent
    • understand institutional review of research
    • balance benefits/risk in a study
  17. What is a situation in which the rights of study participants are in direct conflict with requirements for a rigorous study
    ethical dilemma in conducting research
  18. 3 types of consent
    • informed (document)
    • implied (email)
    • Process (qualitative)
  19. types of external review
    • human subject committee
    • Institutional
  20. What is selecting a group of people, events, behaviors, or other elements with which to conduct a study
  21. What is the entire set of individuals that meet sampling criteria
  22. What is the portion of target population to which the researcher has reasonable access
    accessible population
  23. what is an individual unit of a population
  24. What is written in a positive statement that is included in study that will specifically define our population
  25. What is negative, not included in study that will specifically define our population
  26. what is extending the findings of a sample study to a larger population
  27. what influences a generalization
    quality and consistency of study
  28. What is a repeating study and keeping it as true to the second study to expand info
  29. What is the sample the accessible population, and the target population are alike in as many ways as possible
  30. What needs to be evaluated under representativeness
    • setting
    • characteristic
    • values on variables
  31. what is an error of the difference in the population and the sample? (mean reading)
    sampling error
  32. what is the percentage of subjects that declined to participate in the study
    refusal rate
  33. what is the withdrawal or loss of subjects from a study?
    sample mortality
  34. What increases the representativeness of the sample based on target population
    random sampling
  35. What is a listing of every member of the population, using the sampling criteria to define membership
    sampling frame
  36. What are outline strategies used to obtain a sample for a study
    sampling plan