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The science of life (the study of living things)
What seven characteristics do all living systems share?
- 1. Cellular Organization
- 2. Ordered Complexity
- 3. Sensitivity
- 4. Growth, Development, and reproduction
- 5. Energy Utilization
- 6. Homeostasis
- 7. Evolutionary Adaptation
The fundamental elements of matter
When atoms are clustered together
Complex biological molecules assembled into tiny structures
The membrane-bounded units that contains organelles and are the basic unit of life
The three levels of organization exhibited in cells of complex multicellular organisms
- Tissues - Group of similar cells that act as a functional unit
- Organs - Body structures composed of several different tissues that act as a structural and functional unit.
- Organ Systems - Such as the nervous system. Organs grouped together
The 5 categories of hierarchical organization of living things
- 1. The cellular level
- 2.The organismal level
- 3. The population level
- 4. The ecosystem level
- 5.The Biosphere
A body of interconnected concepts supported by scientific reasoning and experimental evidence, that explains the facts in some area of study.
What is a Theory
Changes in allele frequencies in a population over time
5 mechanisms of Evolution
- 1. Mutation
- 2. Genetic Drift
- 3. Gene Flow
- 4. Meiotic drive
- 5. Natural Selection
A differential in the fitness of individuals and lineages within an environment.
1. Fitness - Ability to survive and reproduce (results in organisms having adaptations)
2. Adaptation - A trait with a functional role that evolves and is maintained in a population
2 aspects of Natural Selection
3 most famous scientists for the theory of Evolution
1. Malthus - Wrote An essay on the principles of population and came up with "demographics", the idea that populations don't increase exponentially over time.
2. Sir Charles Lyell - Wrote Principles of Geology. Famous for uniformatarianism - the earth was shaped by slow moving forces that are still in operation today
3. Darwin - Came up with the 4 principles of Natural Selection
What are Darwins 4 principles of natural selection
- 1. Overproduction of offspring - More offspring are produced than what the environment can sustain.
- 2. Variation of Traits
- 3. At least some variation is heritable
- 4. Organisms with variations or adaptations that increase fitness will pass genes into the next generation
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