Bio Ch1

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Bio Ch1
2015-01-23 14:21:47
Bio Ch1
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  1. Define Biology
    The science of life (the study of living things)
  2. What seven characteristics do all living systems share?
    • 1. Cellular Organization
    • 2. Ordered Complexity
    • 3. Sensitivity
    • 4. Growth, Development, and reproduction
    • 5. Energy Utilization
    • 6. Homeostasis
    • 7. Evolutionary Adaptation
  3. The fundamental elements of matter
  4. When atoms are clustered together
  5. Complex biological molecules assembled into tiny structures
  6. The membrane-bounded units that contains organelles and are the basic unit of life
  7. The three levels of organization exhibited in cells of complex multicellular organisms
    • Tissues - Group of similar cells that act as a functional unit
    • Organs - Body structures composed of several different tissues that act as a structural and functional unit.
    • Organ Systems - Such as the nervous system. Organs grouped together
  8. The 5 categories of hierarchical organization of living things
    • 1. The cellular level
    • 2.The organismal level
    • 3. The population level
    • 4. The ecosystem level
    • 5.The Biosphere
  9. A body of interconnected concepts supported by scientific reasoning and experimental evidence, that explains the facts in some area of study.
    What is a Theory
  10. Evolution
    Changes in allele frequencies in a population over time
  11. 5 mechanisms of Evolution
    • 1. Mutation
    • 2. Genetic Drift
    • 3. Gene Flow
    • 4. Meiotic drive
    • 5. Natural Selection
  12. Natural Selection
    A differential in the fitness of individuals and lineages within an environment.
  13. 1. Fitness - Ability to survive and reproduce (results in organisms having adaptations)
    2. Adaptation - A trait with a functional role that evolves and is maintained in a population
    2 aspects of Natural Selection
  14. 3 most famous scientists for the theory of Evolution
    1. Malthus - Wrote An essay on the principles of population and came up with "demographics", the idea that populations don't increase exponentially over time.

    2. Sir Charles Lyell - Wrote Principles of Geology. Famous for uniformatarianism - the earth was shaped by slow moving forces that are still in operation today

    3. Darwin - Came up with the 4 principles of Natural Selection
  15. What are Darwins 4 principles of natural selection
    • 1. Overproduction of offspring - More offspring are produced than what the environment can sustain.
    • 2. Variation of Traits
    • 3. At least some variation is heritable
    • 4. Organisms with variations or adaptations that increase fitness will pass genes into the next generation