1.7 Hearing and Balance senses

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efrain12
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293665
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1.7 Hearing and Balance senses
Updated:
2015-01-23 15:57:13
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AnP II
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Hearing and balance
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  1. what does the inner ear consist off? (2)
    -bony cavity (bony labyrinth)

    -labyrinth lined with membrane (membranous labyrinth
  2. The bony and membranous labyrinth are both filled with
    • Fluids
    • *trash can liner in can
    • **area inside liner is filled with fluid
    • ***area between liner and trash can is filled with different fluid
  3. What 3 structures are on bony labyrinth?
    -cochlea

    -vestibule

    -semicircular canals
  4. Which fluid is in the bony labyrinth?
    perilymph
  5. What are the concentrations like in perilymph?
    - High NA

    - Low K
  6. What are the concentrations like in endolymph?
    -high K

    -Low Na
  7. Which fluid is concentrated within membranous labyrinth?
    endolympth
  8. Where does the cochlea begin?
    At oval and round window
  9. Where does the cochlea end?
    helicotrema
  10. What is the modiolus?
    • Central pillar of bone that cochlea is carved around
    • *mountain is the modiolus
    • *road built around is the cochlea
  11. Membranes) vestibular (3)
    -thin

    -single cell

    -extends entire length of cochlea
  12. Membranes) basilar
    -becomes wider as it extends from oval/round window to helicotrema
  13. Chambers) how are these created?
    By membranes
  14. what are the 3 chambers created by membranes?
    -scala vestibuli

    -cochlear duct

    -scalar tympani

    ***all extend length of cochlea
  15. Between which 2 structures does scala vestibulli lie ?
    Temporal bone and vestibular membrane
  16. bw which 2 structures does cochlear duct lay?
    Vestibular and basilar membrane
  17. bw which 2 structures does scala tympani lay?
    Basilar and temporal bone
  18. Where does the organ of corti sit?
    On basilar membrane
  19. What is the Tectorial membrane attached to?
    Temporal bone
  20. Auditory function) what is volume?
    wave amplitude
  21. Auditory function) what is pitch?
    wave frequency
  22. Auditory function) what is timbre?
    Resonance quality
  23. Range of decibels we can hear
    .1 - 120 decibels
  24. Range of hz we can hear?
    20-20K hz
  25. volume= decibels
  26. pitch=hz
  27. What is the purpose of ossciles?
    To amplify sound
  28. What's significant about tympanic membrane and oval window vibrations
    Since the tympanic membrane is 20x larger the sound waves exerted onto oval window are 20x greater than on tympanic membrane
  29. What occurs after staples vibrates ? (2)
    -creates perilymph waves in scala vestibuli

    -perilymph waves push on vestibular membrane  and causes endolymph waves which then causes basilar membrane to vibrate
  30. What does basilar vibrations cause hair cells to do?
    Starts to move and bend against the Tectorial membrane which causes depolarization
  31. What does bending of Cilia cause?
    • Opening of K channels which will rush into the cell because theres a lot of it in endolymph
    • *this is what causes depolarization
  32. Pitch ; basilar membrane)
    -because the basilar membrane gets thicker as it extends to helicotrema the high pitches frequency is located by oval window and the low pitch at the helicotrema
  33. Function of round window (2)
    -pressure release valve

    -absorbs excessive waves so only the strongest signals will be picked up and not have many different vibrations
  34. AP propagation
    -from hair cells to cochlear nerve to cochlear nucleus to thalamus to auditory cortex and some branches to inferior colliculus
  35. Static labyrinth) vestibule
    Bony labyrinth
  36. What are the utricle and saccule?
    • Membranous labyrinths
    • *analogous to cochlear duct
  37. Macula with otolithic membrane is analogous to
    Organ of corti
  38. Each macula is located within saccule and utricle
  39. What comes into contact with otolithic membrane?
    stereocillia
  40. Kinetic labyrinth ) how many semicircular canals are there? What positon
    • 3;
    • -posterior
    • -anterior
    • -lateral
  41. Kinetic labyrinth ) ampulla
    Elevated base of canal
  42. Kinetic labyrinth ) Crista ampullaris
    Hair cells
  43. Kinetic labyrinth ) cupula
    Cup over hair cells
  44. What does static labyrinth detect? (2)
    -evaluates the position of your head relative to gravity

    -linear acceleration or deceleration
  45. Each macula is surrounded by?
    endolymph
  46. Does macula move?
    No its stationary but otolithic membrane is moveable
  47. Transduction of balance
    As head movement occurs, endolymph moves and pushed otolithic membrane while sliding over the hair cells bending their Cilia which are embedded in the membrane causing depolarization
  48. Macula of utricle is oriented horizontally and responds to...
    Horizontal movement
  49. Macula of saccule is oriented vertically and responds to
    Vertical movement
  50. Kinetic labyrinth) semicircular canals respond to
    Rotational movements that why they are position the way they are to detect 3 dimensions
  51. Within the membranous ducts of semicircular canals, what surround Crista and cupulla?
    endolymph
  52. Is the cupola moveable?
    • yes
    • *Crista is stationary
  53. As head rotation occurs, endolymph...
    Flows and moves cupola over the hairs of the Cristal causing the Celia to bend and depolarizing

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