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- (less direct)
- voters elect leaders and then hold those leaders accountable for the decisions they make about law and public policy.
- (very challenging to the averAge person)$$$$$ & slow
- filing lawsuits, hiring attorneys, pay for gathering and presenting evidence to a court
- use variety of techniques to influence govt. ie. Boycott (coordinated effort to not use a product or service until a policty is changed) marches, newspaper articles
- -these initiatives are rarely initially successful but over time may draw supporters and eventually influence government
- (direct to canidates)
- individuals and organized groups present information and persuasive arguments to government officials. Goal is to convince these decision makers to support specific laws or to oppose proposed changes in existing laws and policies.
- more indirect, LONG-term strategy
- -individuals and groups try to change hearts and minds of fellow citizens, through education of the public, publicizing important events so that social values will eventually change
a system of rule in which one person such as a king or queen possesses absolute authority over the government by the virtue of being born into a royal family and inheriting the position.
kings and queens perform ceremonial duties but play little or no role in actually governing hteir country.
a political system in which all citizens have a right to play a role in shaping government action a mechanism often referred to as popular sovereignty
- -Voters make the direct vote for issues
- -issue because it takes too long
- Representative Democracy
- Where people rule through elected representatives
- a system in which all citizens have a right to play a role in shaping government action (popular sovereignty)
a system in which sovereignty and authority rest quite clearly with the national government
ulitimate authority comes from the states
gov authority is divided between a national gov & state govs.
While they were all subjects of the British king, they created their own colonial assemblies to manage their day-to-day affairs. The representatives on these assemblies were elected by the colonists, unlike the governors sent by the king. They had little legal authority but they developed in the colonists a taste for self-rule.
a period prior to the American Revolution when the British Parilament sought to recoup some of the costs associated with the French and Indian War by levying new taxes and fees on colonists. (Sugar & Stamp act)
- who argued that all legitimate governing authority is based on the consent of the governed and that all individuals have natural rights.
- (election over being born into
An American revolutionary writer and a democratic philosopher whose pamphlet common sense argued for complete independence from Britain. he helped inspire colonists to join the Patriot cause and to bolster support for the Continental Army.
- Economist Adam Smith stressed the importance of limiting government to protect the economic rights of citizens.
Declaration of Independence
BREAK UP LETTER
The Articles of Confederation:Why did they fail?
- Our first stab at self-governance was a flop, because there was no way for the new national government to regulate commerce, raise needed funds, or conduct foreign policy. Most significantly, the system was unstable, ready to collapse at any moment. However, the experience under the Articles of Confederation shaped the motivations of the framers, thus shaping the Constitution and our system of government.
- nWeak central government
- nNo power to tax
- nNo power to regulate commerce
- nNo power to conduct foreign affairs
- nNo power to enforce laws
- nDifficult to amend
- The first system of government that the Continental Congress drew up for the independent states was called the Articles of Confederation. These Articles provided for a weak central government, with neither power to collect taxes, nor to enforce laws. Not surprisingly after the experience with the distant central government in Great Britain, the Articles guarded state sovereignty.
- We noted earlier that the Revolution was fought in large part because of money, and resulted from a lack of other pathways to change for the colonists. Shays’s Rebellion follows a similar pattern and gives us some insight into the Constitutional Convention.
- (farmer sin the state of masschusites,
- drought, they needed water,
- farmers that felt unrep, & revolted
- 3k formed miltia, protest in state,
- shay the leader
- finacial issues, responsenes to defence, sharing resources
Federalists v. Anti-Federalists
- Group favoring ratification of the new Constitution.
- anti federalists
- Jefferson believed in strict construction, Jackson was an anti federalist and opposed the national bank
- proposed by large states during constitutional convention that based representation in the legislature on population
- --national gov. to be divided into 3 branches:
- --legislature with 2 chambers (house: chosen by people; Senate: chosen by house)
- --judicial branch of multiple courts with judges appointed by legislature
New Jersey Plan
A framework for the Constitution proposed by a group of small states. Its key points were a one-house legislature with one vote for each state, a Congress with the ability to raise revenue, and a Supreme Court with members appointed for life.
Connecticut Compromise/Great Compromise
stated that the national legislature would consist of two houses, the upper house and the lower house
- In order to determine population for representation in the House, the Constitution called for a national census to be taken every ten years.
- But who would count for purposes of representation? Southern states wanted to count slaves since they comprised as much as 40% of the population in some states and would greatly increase the representation of the Southern states in Congress. Northern states argued that since slaves were legally considered property and could not vote or enjoy any other rights of citizenship, they should not be counted.
- A compromise was reached that slaves would count as three-fifths of a person for purposes of representation.
- The Bill of Rights was added to placate the Anti-Federalists, who feared that not enough protection for civil liberties, such as freedom of speech, had been built into the Constitution.
A compromise was reached between federal and state power, called federalism, in which the federal government has certain expressed powers, such as national security and foreign affairs, and the state governments, which are closer to the people, have police powers, such as health, safety, and education.
The sharing of powers between these three branches solves the problem with the Articles of a government that is too weak yet avoids a government that is too strong. Each branch is limited, or checked, by the other two.
Congress may exercise the powers that the Constitution grants it, subject to explicit restrictions in the Bill of Rights and other protections in the Constitution.
are powers in nations with a federal system of government that are shared by both the State and the federal government. They may be exercised simultaneously within the same territory and in relation to the same body of citizens. They are contrasted with reserved powers. Examples of the concurrent powers enjoyed by both the federal and State governments are: the power to tax, build roads, establish bankruptcy laws, and to create lower courts..
Marble cake federalism/cooperative federalism
- Cooperative Federalism
- A concept of federalism in which national, state, and local governments interact cooperatively and collectively to solve common problems ; began with the New Deal.
Layer cake federalism/dual federalism
The concept of federalism in which the state and national levels of government have separate areas of authority
- the state of being subject only to laws established for the good of the community, especially with regard to freedom of action and speech.
- individual rights protected by law from unjust governmental or other interference.
Bill of Rights
- further checked the power of the majority
- The Bill of Rights is a list of limits on government power.
- (apeeze the feds)
- Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.
prohibits the government from making any law “respecting an establishment of religion.” This clause not only forbids the government from establishing an official religion,
Free exercise clause
reserves the right of American citizens to accept any religious belief and engage in religious rituals. it also seems to allow for violation of laws, as long as that violation is made for religious reasons.
An extracting test for violations of fundamental rights by requiring the gov to demonstrate a compelling intrest when policies & practicies clash w/ certain constitutional rights. the gov may persuade judges, for ex: national security interests or health & safety interests outweigh the exercise of free speech or religion in specific situations.
interpretive approach to the establishment clause of the 1st amendment that would permit gov financial support for certain religious programs, or would permit gov sponsorship of religious practices, such as prayer in public schools
an interpretive approach to the establishment clause of the 1st amendment, which requires a wall of seperation between church & state, including prohibitions on using gov money for religious programs
3 part test for establishment clause violations announced by the u.s supreme court in lemon v kurt 1971 that examines wheter gov policies support religious programs or cause excessive entanglement between gov & religion
Clear and present danger
Interpretation of the First Amendment that holds that the government cannot interfere with speech unless the speech presents a clear and present danger that it will lead to evil or illegal acts.
Also known as expressive conduct, using actions and symbols rather than words to convey an idea. Burning the American Flag for example.
Inflict injury or tend to incite an immediate breach of the peace. Supreme Court says these words do not convey ideas, and are not protected.
Equal protection clause. Citizenship
fair treatment through the normal judicial system, especially as a citizen's entitlement.
states must apply the law equally and cannot discriminate against people or groups of people arbitrarily.
13th, 14th, and 15th amendments
- 13: to the United States Constitution officially abolished and continues to prohibit slavery to this day.
- 14:Amendment to the United States Constitution declared that all persons born or naturalized in the United States are American citizens including African Americans.
- 15:to the United States Constitution prohibits each government in the United States from denying a citizen the right to vote based on that citizen's race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal
Jim Crow Laws
adopted throughout the south to disenfranchise black citizens and physically separate african american and whites
to deny citizens the right to vote.
if ur grandpa voted so can you but that to denied a lot of slaves the right to vote.
poor slaves didnt have that much money
Even though African Americans could participate in general elections, party candidates were still determined in all white primaries
African American Civil Rights Movement