The study of microbes (small organism that usually cannot be seen without a microscope).
Why are microbes important?
Decomposers - huge role in biogeochemical cycling, also help in wastewater treatment process. (eats dead stuff and puts it into the environment.)
Bioremediation - can be used to clean up toxic materials (i.e. oil, arsenic, etc.)
Food production - yeast and other bacteria used to produce fermented foods.
Antibiotic - antibiotics derived from microbes.
Gene therapy - viruses used to deliver genes to human cells.
Protect us from disease - normal flora = bacteria that live in and on humans
What is the Scientific Method?
A basic protocol for problem solving.
Foundation for discovery and investigation.
Objective and rational investigation of phenomena.
What are the steps to the Scientific Method?
The one variable that will be changed
Doesn't receive the experimental variable; provides a comparison to see if experimental variable caused a change.
receives experimental variable
Large sample size
Classification of living organisms
Lack of nucleus
Possess a membrane bound nucleus
Proposed spontaneous generation - live arises from non-living matter
Tick peptidoglycan cell wall
Thin peptidoglycan cell wall
The use organism to remove or neutralizes pollutants from a contaminated site
Water attracted to other water molecules. Adjacent water molecules held together by H-Bonds
Water attracted to other polar molecules. Water attracted to other polar molecules
Flexible spiral. Moves using avial filaments
External to cell wall (outside). Made out of polysaccharides, polypeptides, both.
Neatly organized and firmly attached. Contributes to virulence (ability to cause disease). Prevent phagocytosis (phagocytes can't ingest bacterium - slip away). Streptococcus pneumoniae and Klebsiella pneumonia.
Unorganized, loose, sticky. Attachment to hard surfaces. Aids in forming biofilims (population of large bacteria) Streptococcus mutans - dental plaque.
Shiny colonies are good indicators of
having capsules. Can only have one not both. Only one capsule or slime layer.
Long filamentous appendage. Use for motility. Not present in all bacteria. Composed of protein - Flagellin (cylinder like). Rotates clock wise or counterclockwise.
Flagella covers surface of cell
At ends of cell only. Flagella
Flagella wraps around some spiral shaped bacteria. Found between plasma membrane and cell wall. Causes bacteria to move like corkscrew. Treponema pallidum - etiologic agent of syphilis. Borrelia burgdorferi - etiologic agent of lyme disease.
Consist of protein called Pilin. Shorter, straighter, and thinner than flagella. Fimbriae allow attachment. Aid in forming biofilms. Help bacteria adhere to epithelial surfaces. Hami Fimbrae like strctures in Archaea