1st set of Microbiology cards

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1st set of Microbiology cards
2015-02-02 00:53:24
Microbiology sceince

Microbiology cards
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  1. What is Microbiology?
    The study of microbes (small organism that usually cannot be seen without a microscope).
  2. Why are microbes important?
    • Decomposers - huge role in biogeochemical cycling, also help in wastewater treatment process. (eats dead stuff and puts it into the environment.)
    • Bioremediation - can be used to clean up toxic materials (i.e. oil, arsenic, etc.)
    • Food production - yeast and other bacteria used to produce fermented foods.
    • Antibiotic - antibiotics derived from microbes.
    • Gene therapy - viruses used to deliver genes to human cells.
    • Protect us from disease - normal flora = bacteria that live in and on humans
    • Cause Disease
  3. What is the Scientific Method?
    • A basic protocol for problem solving.
    • Foundation for discovery and investigation.
    • Objective and rational investigation of phenomena.
  4. What are the steps to the Scientific Method?
    • Observation
    • Question
    • Hypothesis
    • Experiment
    • Results
    • Conclusion
  5. Experimental variable
    The one variable that will be changed
  6. Control Group
    Doesn't receive the experimental variable; provides a comparison to see if experimental variable caused a change.
  7. Test/experimental group
    receives experimental variable
  8. Large sample size
    decreases error
  9. Taxonomy
    Classification of living organisms
  10. Prokaryotes
    Lack of nucleus
  11. Eukaryotes
    Possess a membrane bound nucleus
  12. Aristotle
    Proposed spontaneous generation - live arises from non-living matter
  13. Gram positive
    Tick peptidoglycan cell wall
  14. Gram negative
    • Thin peptidoglycan cell wall
    • Lipopolysaccharides
  15. Bioremediation
    The use organism to remove or neutralizes pollutants from a contaminated site
  16. Cohesion
    Water attracted to other water molecules. Adjacent water molecules held together by H-Bonds
  17. Adhesion
    Water attracted to other polar molecules. Water attracted to other polar molecules
  18. Spirillum
    Rigid. Corkscrew
  19. Vibrio
    Curved rods
  20. Spirochete
    Flexible spiral. Moves using avial filaments
  21. Coccus
  22. Diplo-
  23. Tetrad-
  24. Staphylo-
  25. Strepto-
  26. Bacillus
  27. Glycocalyces
    External to cell wall (outside). Made out of polysaccharides, polypeptides, both.
  28. Capsule
    Neatly organized and firmly attached. Contributes to virulence (ability to cause disease). Prevent phagocytosis (phagocytes can't ingest bacterium - slip away). Streptococcus pneumoniae and Klebsiella pneumonia.
  29. Slime layer
    Unorganized, loose, sticky. Attachment to hard surfaces. Aids in forming biofilims (population of large bacteria) Streptococcus mutans - dental plaque.
  30. Shiny colonies are good indicators of
    having capsules. Can only have one not both. Only one capsule or slime layer.
  31. Flagella
    Long filamentous appendage. Use for motility. Not present in all bacteria. Composed of protein - Flagellin (cylinder like). Rotates clock wise or counterclockwise.
  32. Peritrichous
    Flagella covers surface of cell
  33. Polar
    At ends of cell only. Flagella
  34. Endoflagella
    Flagella wraps around some spiral shaped bacteria. Found between plasma membrane and cell wall. Causes bacteria to move like corkscrew. Treponema pallidum - etiologic agent of syphilis. Borrelia burgdorferi - etiologic agent of lyme disease.
  35. Fimbriae
    Consist of protein called Pilin. Shorter, straighter, and thinner than flagella. Fimbriae allow attachment. Aid in forming biofilms. Help bacteria adhere to epithelial surfaces. Hami Fimbrae like strctures in Archaea