Kaplan Biology Chapter 1-3

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xijunzhu
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293684
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Kaplan Biology Chapter 1-3
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2015-01-24 11:10:34
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biology
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biology 1-3
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  1. resolution for microscopes
    • differentiates two closely placed objects
    • amount of detail you see, you can enlarge an image but the image will be blurry, you need resolution
  2. diaphragm
    amount of light allowed to pass through specimen
  3. course adjustment knob
    focus image by moving platform up and down
  4. compound light microscope
    nonliving organisms
  5. phase contrast microscope
    living organisms
  6. electron microscope
    image down to atomic level
  7. centrifugation
    higher density lower it goes
  8. characteristics of prokaryotes
    • cell wall
    • no membrane bound nucleus
    • DNA in nucleoid
    • carry other genetic info in plasmids
  9. two types of bacteria
    • spherical (cocci)
    • rod-shaped (bacilli)
  10. what is synthesized in nucleolus
    rRNA
  11. RER and SER
    • RER (synthesize proteins)
    • SER (lipid synthesis and detox of drugs and poison
  12. autolysis
    cell death from lysosomes releasing hydrolytic enzymes
  13. peroxisomes
    creates hydrogen peroxide and break fats into usable molecules, catalyze detox reactions in liver
  14. glyoxysomes
    convert fats to sugars for plants until photosynthesis
  15. chloroplasts
    energy from water, CO2, and sunlight
  16. centrioles
    cylindrical in shape, organize spindle apparatus
  17. microfilaments
    action (smallest)
  18. microtubules
    • hollow, polymers of tublin
    • chromosomal separation in mitosis and structural bases for cilia and flagella
  19. hypOtonic
    swOllen cell
  20. isotonic
    does not prevent movement, prevents net movement of particles
  21. facilitated diffusion
    passive (use integral membrane proteins)
  22. active transport
    against concentration gradient
  23. pinocytosis
    endocytosis of fluids and dissolved particles
  24. virus
    nucleic acid surrounded by capsid (protein coat)
  25. how does antihypertension medication work?
    • ACE: angiotensin II peptide stimulates activity of hormone aldosterone which activates kidneys to reabsorb h2o which increase blood pressure
    • block ACE (angiotensin II)
  26. cofactors
    nonprotein molecules that with the enzyme make the enzyme active
  27. apoenzyme
    • enzyme without cofactors
    • holoenzymes: with cofactors
  28. two classes of vitamins
    fat and water soluble
  29. when reaction is 1/2 Vmax
    then Km =[S]
  30. when [S]<Km
    changes in [S] will greatly affect reaction rate
  31. when [S]>K
    [S] approaches Vmax
  32. what does low Km mean?
    high affinity for substrate
  33. enzyme catalyzed reactions usually double for every
    10C increase in temp until optimal temp is reached
  34. allosteric effectors
    causes conformational shift in proteins or shift in affinity of enzyme for substrate (cooperative binding)
  35. reversible inhibition
    • competitive (overcome by adding more substrate, increase in Km)
    • noncompetitive (binds to allosteric site, Vmax decrease)
  36. pancreatic enzymes
    work in alkaline solutions
  37. enzyme specificity is determined by what?
    shape of active site
  38. auxotrophs
    organisms capable of using sun's energy to create organic molecules
  39. heterotrophs
    • derive energy by breaking down organic molecule made by plants and harnessing the power held in bonds of molecules
    • breaking down sugar
  40. how much energy is needed to break/make ATP from ADP and Pi
    7kcal/mole
  41. glucose catabolism can regenerate what?
    ATP from ADP and Pi
  42. proteins of the ETC are located in?
    inner mitochondria membrane
  43. input and output of glycolysis
    • input (glucose), uses 2ATP
    • output (2 molecules of pyruvate (3C), makes 4ATP
    • NAD+ is converted to NADH
  44. substrate level phosphorylation
    direct generation of ATP from ADP and Pi
  45. fermentation
    • reduce pyruvate to ethanol or lactic acid.
    • oxidize NADH to NAD+. NAD+ is necessary as high energy electron carrier
    • forms two ATP
  46. alcohol fermentation
    pyruvate to acetaldehyde to ethanol
  47. cori cycle
    lactic acid back to pyruvate
  48. cellular respiration pyruvate decarboxylation
    • occurs in mito matrix
    • the remianing acetyle group bound to coenzyme A to form acetyl-CoA
  49. 2ATP from glycolysis what is NADH from glycolysis and decarbox of pyruvate?
    • 2 NADH
    • 2NADH
  50. citric acid cylce
    • combine acetyl-coA (2C) with oxaloacetate (4C) to generate citrate (6C)
    • total output: 2CO2 and oxaloacetate is regenerated
  51. total output of products from TCA?
    • 6NADH
    • 2FADH2
    • 2ATP
  52. value/purpose of TCA?
    generate high energy electrons that are carried by NADH and FADH2
  53. main function of ETC
    move H+ out of mitochondria matrix and into intermembrane space.
  54. cyanide and ETC
    blocks the final transfer of e to O2
  55. purpose of proton motive gradient
    links oxidation of NADH and FADH2 to ADP phosphorylation
  56. where does pyruvate to acetyl CoA and TCA take place?
    mitochondria matrix
  57. carbohydrate
    • sugar polymer broken down and stored in liver for later used as glycogen
    • glycogen->G6P when needed
  58. fats where is the energy stored
    • in fatty acid chains, activated in cytoplasm and transported to mitochondria matrix to undergo B-oxidation (each round, beta oxidation results in 1NADH and 1FADH2)
    • fats have 48 total carbons, we remove 2 at a time (24NADH and 24FADH2)
  59. fatty acid enter catabolic pathway (TCA)
    in form of acetylcoA

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