Kaplan Biology Chapter 1-3
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resolution for microscopes
- differentiates two closely placed objects
- amount of detail you see, you can enlarge an image but the image will be blurry, you need resolution
amount of light allowed to pass through specimen
course adjustment knob
focus image by moving platform up and down
compound light microscope
phase contrast microscope
image down to atomic level
higher density lower it goes
characteristics of prokaryotes
- cell wall
- no membrane bound nucleus
- DNA in nucleoid
- carry other genetic info in plasmids
two types of bacteria
- spherical (cocci)
- rod-shaped (bacilli)
what is synthesized in nucleolus
RER and SER
- RER (synthesize proteins)
- SER (lipid synthesis and detox of drugs and poison
cell death from lysosomes releasing hydrolytic enzymes
creates hydrogen peroxide and break fats into usable molecules, catalyze detox reactions in liver
convert fats to sugars for plants until photosynthesis
energy from water, CO2, and sunlight
cylindrical in shape, organize spindle apparatus
- hollow, polymers of tublin
- chromosomal separation in mitosis and structural bases for cilia and flagella
does not prevent movement, prevents net movement of particles
passive (use integral membrane proteins)
against concentration gradient
endocytosis of fluids and dissolved particles
nucleic acid surrounded by capsid (protein coat)
how does antihypertension medication work?
- ACE: angiotensin II peptide stimulates activity of hormone aldosterone which activates kidneys to reabsorb h2o which increase blood pressure
- block ACE (angiotensin II)
nonprotein molecules that with the enzyme make the enzyme active
- enzyme without cofactors
- holoenzymes: with cofactors
two classes of vitamins
fat and water soluble
when reaction is 1/2 Vmax
then Km =[S]
changes in [S] will greatly affect reaction rate
[S] approaches Vmax
what does low Km mean?
high affinity for substrate
enzyme catalyzed reactions usually double for every
10C increase in temp until optimal temp is reached
causes conformational shift in proteins or shift in affinity of enzyme for substrate (cooperative binding)
- competitive (overcome by adding more substrate, increase in Km)
- noncompetitive (binds to allosteric site, Vmax decrease)
work in alkaline solutions
enzyme specificity is determined by what?
shape of active site
organisms capable of using sun's energy to create organic molecules
- derive energy by breaking down organic molecule made by plants and harnessing the power held in bonds of molecules
- breaking down sugar
how much energy is needed to break/make ATP from ADP and Pi
glucose catabolism can regenerate what?
ATP from ADP and Pi
proteins of the ETC are located in?
inner mitochondria membrane
input and output of glycolysis
- input (glucose), uses 2ATP
- output (2 molecules of pyruvate (3C), makes 4ATP
- NAD+ is converted to NADH
substrate level phosphorylation
direct generation of ATP from ADP and Pi
- reduce pyruvate to ethanol or lactic acid.
- oxidize NADH to NAD+. NAD+ is necessary as high energy electron carrier
- forms two ATP
pyruvate to acetaldehyde to ethanol
lactic acid back to pyruvate
cellular respiration pyruvate decarboxylation
- occurs in mito matrix
- the remianing acetyle group bound to coenzyme A to form acetyl-CoA
2ATP from glycolysis what is NADH from glycolysis and decarbox of pyruvate?
citric acid cylce
- combine acetyl-coA (2C) with oxaloacetate (4C) to generate citrate (6C)
- total output: 2CO2 and oxaloacetate is regenerated
total output of products from TCA?
value/purpose of TCA?
generate high energy electrons that are carried by NADH and FADH2
main function of ETC
move H+ out of mitochondria matrix and into intermembrane space.
cyanide and ETC
blocks the final transfer of e to O2
purpose of proton motive gradient
links oxidation of NADH and FADH2 to ADP phosphorylation
where does pyruvate to acetyl CoA and TCA take place?
- sugar polymer broken down and stored in liver for later used as glycogen
- glycogen->G6P when needed
fats where is the energy stored
- in fatty acid chains, activated in cytoplasm and transported to mitochondria matrix to undergo B-oxidation (each round, beta oxidation results in 1NADH and 1FADH2)
- fats have 48 total carbons, we remove 2 at a time (24NADH and 24FADH2)
fatty acid enter catabolic pathway (TCA)
in form of acetylcoA
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