Biology 40s Exam - Kingdom Fungi

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  1. characteristics of fungi
    • eukaryotic
    • multicellular
    • cell walls made of chitin
    • heterotrophic
    • -some parasitic, most saprobic, some mutualistic
    • absorb nutrients from a substrate by releasing digestive enzymes
    • cells have 2 nuclei
    • no true roots
    • no transport system¬†(xylem/phloem)
    • 4 phylums
  2. define saprobic
    eat dead or decaying matter
  3. what are the 4 phylums of kingdom fungi
    • phylum zygomycota (bread molds)
    • phylum ascomycota (sac fungi)
    • phylum basidiomycota (club fungi0
    • phylum deuteromycota
  4. define phylum zygomycota
    • release thousands of spores from sporangia that can withstand poor conditions
    • arrive at suitable substrate and grow
    • ex) rhizopus
  5. define phylum ascomycota
    • largest phylum
    • have a 'sac-like' structure where spores develop
    • ex) mildews, yeasts, and morels
  6. define phylum basidiomycota 
    • have club shaped hyphae called basidia
    • basidia (mushroom fruiting body) is the product of sexual reproduction and has many gills
    • gills hold basidia (spore sacs) and release basidiospores
    • 1 mushroom can produce +1 billion spores
  7. define phylum deuteromycota
    • reproduce asexually
    • ex) blue cheese, soya sauce, and penicillin
  8. what diseases are caused by fungi
    • ringworm
    • fungal nails
    • athletes foot
    • yeast infection and jock itch etc.
    • can be treated with anti-fungal medicines and creams
  9. define mutualism
    • lichens, consist of two species co-existing
    • fungi+photosynthesizing organism (mycorrhizae)
    • -fungi: provide water/protection for algae
    • -algae: provide food for fungi
    • lichens live on bare rock and tree trunks and are very sensitive to pollution
    • puffballs rupture and release a strong rotten odour+spores, attract flies ¬†(fertilization over long distances)
  10. define mycorrhizae
    • two species co-existing
    • fungi + photosynthesizing organism
  11. what are examples of edible mushrooms
    • button
    • oyster
    • morels
    • portabello
    • shataki
    • shimeji
    • truffles
Card Set:
Biology 40s Exam - Kingdom Fungi
2015-01-25 23:58:45

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