Biology 40s Exam - Kingdom Animalia (Invertebrates)

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Biology 40s Exam - Kingdom Animalia (Invertebrates)
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2015-01-26 02:34:34
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  1. what are animal characteristics
    • hetertrophic
    • eukaryotic
    • multicellular
    • most are motile
    • few are sessile
  2. What are the 3 types of symmetry and example of each
    • asymmetry - sea anemone
    • radial symmetry - corals
    • bilateral symmetry - human
  3. what are the 3 tissue layers
    • ectoderm: outer layer of cells
    • mesoderm: middle layer of cells
    • endoderm: inside layer of cells
  4. what are the 3 types of body cavities (coelom)
    • coelomates
    • acoelomates
    • pseudocoelomates
  5. define coelomates
    animals with a true body cavity lined with mesoderm
  6. define acoelomates
    animals without a body cavity
  7. define pseudocoelomates
    animals with a body cavity but not lined with a mesoderm, 'false coelom'
  8. what are the 2 digestive systems
    • complete gut
    • incomplete gut
  9. define complete gut
    • mouth-tube-anus
    • most efficient
  10. define incomplete gut
    • mouth only
    • wastes eliminate through moth/anus
  11. what are the characteristics of phylum porifera (sponges)
    • have pores where water enters
    • live in fresh or salt water
    • most are asymmetrical
    • sessile
    • acoelomates
    • regenerates new body parts to replace missing ones
    • reproduce asexually by budding
  12. describe the structure of a sponge
    • hollow tube with closed bottom
    • top is called the osculum
    • filter feeders - filter food out of water
    • choanocytes or collar cells: specialized cells that line the interior that have a flagella for filtering food particles and moving water
    • spicules: small 'skeletal' parts for structure and support
    • jellylike cells: globular shape, digests food and forms spem/egg
  13. describe sexual reproduction in phylum porifera
    • sponges are hermaphrodites
    • produce sperm and egg/sperm leaves the osculum and enters the pore of the sponge
    • fertilization occurs > zygote > larvae (motile)
    • larvae leaves osculum and wim to new location and grow into a sessile sponge
  14. characteristics of phylum cnideria
    • ex) corals, sea anemonies, jellyfish, and hydras
    • most live in salt-water as individuals of colonies
    • radial symmetry
    • have stinging cells called nematocytes (on tentacles)
    • singing for:
    • -capturing food
    • -defense
  15. what are the 2 body plans of cniderians 
    • polyp 
    • medusa
  16. define polyp
    • vase shape and sessile
    • ex) anemone
  17. define medusa
    • bell shaped and free swimming
    • ex) jellyfish
  18. describe the reproduction of cniderians
    • asexual reproduction by budding
    • asexual reproduction, gametes and fertilization occurs
    • monoecious (one sex)
    • hermaphrodites
  19. describe the respiratory, excretory, and nervous system of cnidarians
    • respirarory:
    • no lungs 
    • exchange of Oby diffusion
    • excretory:
    • use mouth/anus
    • nervous:
    • no brain
    • pulse through water
  20. what are the 3 phylums of worms
    • phylum platyhelminthes - flatworms
    • phylum nematoda - round worms
    • phylum annelida - segmented worms
  21. describe phylum platyhelminthes (flatworms)
    • ex) planaria, flukes, tapeworms
    • classes: turbellaria, trematoda, cestoda
    • bilateral symmetry 
    • organ systems present
    • no segmentation
    • excretory system: flame cells
    • acoelomates
    • have two nerve cords
    • regenerate body parts
  22. describe class turbellaria
    • free-living
    • incomplete gut
    • mouth in the middle of body
    • mouth > eversible pharynx > intestine > branches tubes
    • digestion in food vacuoles
    • flame cells
    • -have cilia that remove excess water and waste through excretory pores
    • small brain > two lateral nerve cords > transverse nerve cords and eyespot
  23. describe the reproductive system of class turbellaria
    • monoecious
    • sexual reproduction: internal fertilization by sperm exchange
    • -fertilized eggs are shed in capsules
    • asexual reproduction: regeneration 
    • -no circulatory or respiratory syste (done by diffusion)
  24. describe class trematoda
    • parasitic
    • body covered with a thick cuticle to protect it from host enzymes
    • suckers used to attach itself
    • feeds on host's digested food
  25. describe class cestoda
    • tapeworms
    • lives in the intestine of a host
    • cuticle: secreted by ectoderm, protects from digestive enzymes
    • scolex: contains suckers and hooks to hold the worm in place in the intestine
    • proglottids: square segments that contain eggs
    • monoecious
    • self-fertilization occurs, mature proglottids can contain 100 000 eggs (pass out of feces)
  26. describe phylum nematoda
    • bilateral symmetry
    • pseudocoelomates (body space but not fully lined by mesoderm)
    • space for more complex organ systems
    • pseudometamerism: lines on ectoderm but not segmentation
    • complete digestive system
    • simplest animal having a 'tube-within-a-tube'
    • free-living or parasitic on plants and animals
    • mouth> pharynx > gut > anus
    • dioecious: sexes separate
    • internal fertilization: female lays up to 200 000 fertilized eggs per day
  27. what are examples of phylum nematoda
    • trichina
    • filiarial worms
    • pinworms
    • hookworms
  28. characteristics of nematodes
    • parasitic
    • roundworms
    • no segments
    • two openings in digestive tube
    • move like a whip
    • no specialized system for respiration or circulation
  29. define elephantiasis
    • mosquito transmits the nematode larvae
    • blocking of lymph vessels by adults causes swelling
    • area of the body becomes abnormally large damaging tissus
  30. describe phylum annelida
    • segmented worms
    • bilateral symmetry
    • coelomates
    • metamerism
    • complete digestive system
    • tube-within-a-tube
    • setae
  31. define metamerism
    true body segments that improve locomotion
  32. define setae
    bristles on ventral side for locomotion
  33. what is the order of the digestive system of segmented worms
    mouth > pharynx > esophagus > crop (stores food) > gizzard (digests food) > intestine > anus
  34. describe the excretory system in segmented worms
    • nephridia: one pair per segment
    • nepridia: highly coiled primitive nephrons (kidneys) for excretion of waste filtered from blood
    • waste comes out nephridiopore 
  35. describe the circulatory system in segmented worms
    • five hearts
    • two major blood vessels connected with capillaries
    • -one dorsal (back)
    • -one ventral (belly)
  36. describe the respiratory system in segmented worms
    • diffuses O2 through skin
    • worms drown when it rains
  37. describe the nervous system in segmented worms
    brain, a double nerve ganglion and a ventral nerve cord
  38. describe the reproductive system in segmented worms
    • hermaphrodites (monoecious)
    • two worms exchange sperm, twice the amount of offspring
    • clitellum contains egg sac
    • seminal receptacle: releases sperm
    • seminal vesicles: produces sperm
  39. what are the 3 classes of phylum molusca
    • class bivalva
    • class gastropoda
    • class cephalopoda
  40. describe class bivalva
    • 'two' 'valves'
    • ex) clams, oysters, and mussels
  41. describe class gastropoda
    • 'stomach' 'foot'
    • stomach is attached to food
    • ex) snails
  42. describe class cephalopoda
    • 'head' 'foot'
    • head attached to foot
    • ex) squid and octopus
  43. what are characteristics of phylum mollusca
    • large, muscular, ventral mass for movement
    • foot modified according to motion required
    • bivalves
    • mantle
    • radula
    • bilateral symmetry
    • coelomates
    • mainly filter feeders, cephalopods are active predators
    • sharp radula for rasping/grinding food
  44. define bivalves
    wedge shaped to burrow in sand
  45. describe snails
    • crawl or creep
    • leave a slime trail
  46. describe a squid and octopus
    modified foot as tentacles
  47. define mantle
    fold of skin that covers organs, this tissue secrete the shell
  48. define radula
    rasping tongue-like organ used to scrape food or drill
  49. define open circulatory system
    • in bivalves and gastropods
    • blood vessels empty into open spaces called sinuses where organs are
    • blood is not contained at all times
  50. define closed circulatory system
    • in cephalopods
    • blood vessel is contained in arteries, veins, capillaries
  51. describe the digestive system of class bivalva
    • filter feeders
    • food through incurrent siphon
    • food trapped in mucus stands of gills
    • transferred to mouth 
    • gut then anus
  52. describe the excretory system in class bivalva
    • wastes filtered by kidney
    • out excurrent siphon
  53. describe the circulatory system in class bivalva
    • heart pumps O2 blood through blood vessels
    • O2 blood empties into sinuses and bathes tissues
    • deoxy-O2 blood drains from sinuses back through blood vessels to gills
  54. describe the respiratory system in class bivalva
    • oxygenated water enters through incurrent siphon
    • passes through gills to oxygenate blood
    • CO2 out excurrent siphon
  55. describe the nervous system in class bivalva
    primitive
  56. describe the reproduction in class bivalva
    • dioecious 
    • some ysters are ambisexual
  57. describe the digestive system in class gastropoda
    • radula scrapes food into mouth
    • gut
    • anus
  58. describe the excretory system in class gsatropoda
    wastes filtered by kidney
  59. describe the circulatory system in class gastropoda
    • same as class bivalva
    • open circulatory system
  60. describe the respiratory system in class gastropoda
    • same as bivalves for aquatic snails
    • terrestrial snails rely on diffusion
  61. describe the nervous system in class gastropoda
    • primitive
    • osphradium: chemical detector 'smell and taste'
  62. describe the reproduction in class gastropoda
    • some hermaphrodites
    • dome dioecious
  63. describe the digestive system in class cephalopoda
    • radula scrapes food into mouth 
    • gut
    • excurrent siphon
  64. describe the excretory system in class cephalopoda
    wastes filtered by kidneys
  65. describe the circulatory system in class cephalopoda
    • same as bivalves
    • uses copper to carry Orather than iron which causes blood to be blue
  66. describe the respiratory system in class cephalopoda
    same as bivalves
  67. describe the nervous system in class cephalopoda
    • well developed 
    • has eyes
  68. describe the reproduction in class cephalopoda
    • dioecious
    • male has suction cups modified as sperm cups
    • breaks off sperm laden tentacle inside female mantle
  69. What are the characteristics of phylum anthropoda
    • exoskeleton
    • open circulatory system (blood is not always contained in blood vessels)
    • body divided into 2 parts
    • jointed legs and appendages
    • bilateral symmetry
    • undergo metamorphosis
  70. what are the 5 classes in phylum anthropoda
    • class insecta
    • class arachnids
    • class crustacea
    • class chilopoda
    • class diplopoda
  71. describe class insecta
    • three body regions:
    • -head
    • -thorax
    • -abdomen
    • six legs attached to thorax
    • open circulatory system
    • adults with one or two pairs of wings attached to thorax
    • two antennae
    • lateral compound eye
  72. what are examples of class insecta
    • grasshoppers
    • butterflies
    • beetles
    • ants
  73. what are the characteristics of class arachnids
    • two body regions:
    • -cephalothorax
    • -abdomen
    • eight legs
    • no antennae
    • open circulatory system
    • most have eight eyes
    • mouth parts are:
    • -chelicerae (modified appendages): inject venom and suck out the prey's inside, often use fangs
    • -spinnerets release silk for web
  74. what are examples of class arachnids
    • spiders
    • scorpions
    • ticks
    • mites
  75. what are the characteristics of class crustacea
    • two body regions
    • two pair of antennae
    • open circulatory system
    • 5 or more pairs of legs
    • primarily aquatic, few terrestrial
  76. what are examples of class crustacea
    • crabs
    • lobsers
    • barnacles
    • isopods
  77. what are the characteristics of class chilopoda
    • well defined head
    • first pair of legs modified for biting and injecting venom
    • flattened body
    • one pair of legs per segment
    • one pair of antennae
    • centipedes are vicious, an venomous
  78. what are the characteristics of class diplopoda
    • two pairs of legs per segment, first four segments have on pair of legs
    • one pair of antennae
    • well defined head
    • usually cylindrical 
    • no venomous bite
  79. define metamorphosis
    a change in form of an animal during normal development 
  80. define complete metamorphosis
    • larvae and adults are very different
    • pupa form
    • ex) flies, beetles, bees, butterflies, ants
  81. define incomplete metamorphosis
    • the nymph more or less resembles the adult
    • there is no pupa formed
    • ex) grasshoppers, cockroaches, dragonflies
  82. grasshopper vs crayfish
    • # of pairs legs: 3
    • # of antennae: 2
    • tail: no
    • respiratory organ: spiracles
    • circulatory system: open
    • excretory organ: malpighian tubules
  83. grasshopper vs crayfish
    • # of pairs of legs: 5
    • # of antennae: 4
    • tail: yes
    • respiratory organ: gills
    • circulatory system: open
    • excretory organ: green glands
  84. define spiracles
    holes in exoskeleton allow for diffusion of gases
  85. define gills
    feathery structures that allow gas exchange in water
  86. what are examples of phylum echinodermata
    • sea stars
    • brittle stars
    • sea urchins
    • sea lillies
    • sea cucumbers
    • sand dollars
  87. describe the body plan of phylum echinodermata
    • larvae - bilateral symmetry
    • adult - radial symmetry
    • most live on the ocean floor
  88. describe the dorsal side anatomy of phylum echinodermata
    • usually 5 arms
    • eyespot
    • madreporite: where water enters
    • anus (dorsal)
  89. describe the water vascular system
    in echinoderms
    • how echinoderms move
    • water enters in through madreporite
    • thousands of tube-feet fill with water
    • move foot by expanding it, muscles retract them
    • tube feet rip open mussels, clams, oysters
  90. do echinoderms have a brain
    • no brain
    • have two systems which tell the animal what is going on
    • the ectoneural (outside=sensory) system and the entoneural system (control of internal functions, a motor system)
  91. describe regeneration in echinoderms
    • reproduce asexually by regeneration
    • capable of regenerating even one arm into a new body if the arm includes part of the central disc
  92. describe the ventral side anatomy of echinoderms
    • mouth surrounded by oral spines
    • groove that extends down each arm
    • tube feet inside each groove
    • digestive gland and gonads on the inside of the arm
    • top of the tube called ampulla create suction

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