Vital Signs 2.0

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Vital Signs 2.0
2015-01-24 13:52:33
Health Care Vital Signs
Health Care
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  1. the act of breathing
  2. it is measured in breaths per minute
  3. normal adult respiration rate
  4. ___ is generally described as normal, shallow or deep
    respiration depth
  5. a pulmonary equipment
  6. it refers to the regularity of inhalations and exhalations
    the rhythm of respiration
  7. primarily denotes deviation from eupnea respiration that is quiet, rhythmic and effortless
    the character of respiration
  8. common respiratory patterns
    • eupnea
    • apnea
    • tachypnea
    • bradypnea
    • Cheyne-Stokes
    • Dyspnea
    • Orthopnea
    • Hyperventilation
    • Hypoventilation
    • Kausmaul's respiration
    • Apneustic
    • Biot's
    • Sterterous
  9. refers to normal respiration
  10. temporary cessation of breathing
  11. increased respiration as seen in fever
  12. rapid respiration marked by quick shallow breaths above 20 breaths per minute in adults
  13. slow but regular respiration
  14. less thanĀ 12 breaths per minute in adults
  15. respiration gradually becomes faster and deeper than normal, then slow alternate and periods of apnea that lasts for 20-60 secs
  16. difficult and painful or labored breathing
  17. inability to breathe when in lying position
  18. very deep rapid respiration
  19. carbon dioxide is excessively exhaled
    respiratory alkalosis
  20. shallow and slow respiration
  21. carbon dioxide is excessively retained
    respiratory acidosis
  22. faster and deeper respiration than normal without pauses
    Kausmaul's respiration
  23. prolonged gasping inhalation, followed by extremely short inefficient exhalation
  24. faster and deeper respiration than normal with abrupt pauses between each breath
  25. noisy breathing
  26. respiration abnormal in character
    • dyspnea
    • wheezing
    • orthopnea
    • stridor
    • rales
    • rhonchi
  27. three process of respiration
    • ventilation
    • diffusion
    • perfusion
  28. the movement of gasses in and out of the lungs
  29. the exchange of gasses from an area of higher pressure to an area of lower pressure
  30. the availability and movement of blood for transport of gasses, nutrients and metabolic waste products
  31. diffusion occurs at the ___
    alveolo-capillary membrane
  32. two types of breathing
    • costal (thoracic) breathing
    • diaphragmatic (abdominal) breathing
  33. involves the movement of the chest
    costal (thoracic) breathing
  34. involves movement of the abdomen
    diaphragmatic (abdominal) breathing
  35. respiratory centers
    • medulla oblongata
    • pons
    • carotid and aortic bodies containing peripheral chemoreceptors
    • muscles and joints containing proprioreceptors
  36. the primary respiratory center
    medulla oblongata
  37. pons contains the ___
    • pneumotaxic center
    • apneustic center
  38. responsible for the rhythmic quality of breathing
    pneumotaxic center
  39. responsible for deep, prolonged inspiration
    apneustic center
  40. these take up the work of breathing when central chemoreceptors in the medulla oblongata are damaged
    carotid and aortic bodies containing peripheral chemoreceptors
  41. major factors affecting the respiratory rate
    • exercise
    • stress
    • environment
    • increased altitude
    • mediations
  42. increase temperature of the environment ___ respiratory rate
  43. decrease temperature of the environment ___ respiratory rate
  44. it is the measure of the pressure of blood as it circulates in the arteries
    blood pressure
  45. blood pressure is measured in ___
    millimeter of mercury
  46. normal blood pressure
  47. two kinds of blood pressure
    • systolic pressure
    • diastolic pressure
  48. the pressure of blood at the height of the wave when the heart contracts
    systolic presssure
  49. the pressure of the blood at the low point in the wave when the heart muscle relaxes
    diastolic pressure
  50. the lowest pressure and is present at all times within the ___
    diastolic pressure; arteries
  51. the difference between systolic pressure and diastolic pressure
    pulse pressure
  52. it's normally 70mL of blood for each contraction
    cardiac output
  53. normally an adult has ___ of circulating blood
    6 liters
  54. channel of the blood vessel
  55. a series of sounds when taking BP
    Korotkoff sound
  56. 5 phases of korotkoff sound
    • sharp tapping
    • a swishing or whooshing sound
    • a thump softer than tapping phase 1
    • a softer blowing muffled sounds that fades
    • silence
  57. two common problem of blood pressure
    • hypertension
    • hypotension
  58. abnormally high blood pressure
  59. abnormally low blood pressure
  60. name of Korotkoff
  61. blood pressure is measured with
    • blood pressure cuff
    • sphymomanometer
    • stethoscope
  62. consist of a bladder, rubber bulb, valve
    blood pressure cuff
  63. rubber bag that can be inflated with air
  64. inflates the bladder
    rubber bulb
  65. releases the air in the bladder when released
  66. bladder too narrow --> ___
    erroneously elevated
  67. bladder too wide --> ___
    erroneously low
  68. width of the blood pressure cuff
    40% of the circumference or 20% wider than the diameter of the midpoint of the limb on which it is used
  69. length of the blood pressure cuff
    should almost encircle the limb and cover from 60%%-100% of its circumference -- preferably 80
  70. measurement that indicates the pressure of the air within the bladder
  71. types of sphygomomanometer
    • aneroid
    • electronic/digital
  72. calibrated with a needle that points to the calibrations
  73. eliminate the need to listen to the sounds of the patients systolic and diastolic pressures through a stethoscope
  74. determinants of blood pressure
    • blood volume
    • peripheral resistance
    • cardiac output
    • elasticity or compliance of blood vessels
    • blood viscosity
  75. refers to the quantity of blood being circulated in the body
    blood volume
  76. blood volume that raises BP
  77. blood volume that lowers bp
  78. the resistance offered by the arteriole vessels to the flow of the blood which primarily depends on the condition of the arterioles
    peripheral resistance
  79. peripheral resistance that elevates the BP
  80. peripheral resistance that lowers the vp
  81. means the amount of blood pumped by the heart
    cardiac output
  82. it is the capacity of the arteries to stretch
    elasticity or compliance of blood vessels
  83. TIA
    transient ischemic attack
  84. refers to the state of blood being sticky and gummy
    blood viscosity
  85. viscosity increases markedly when the ___ is more than 60%-65%
  86. factors affecting blood pressure
    • age
    • race
    • medications
    • exercise
    • obesity
    • stress
    • diurnal variation
    • gender
    • disease process
  87. BP should not be measured...
    • in an arm with an intravenous (IV) line
    • in the side of he body which a breast has been removed
    • in an arm with a shunt
  88. sites for taking blood pressure
    • upper extremity
    • lower extremity
  89. cuff is wrapped around the upper arm
    upper extremity
  90. cuff is wrapped around the thigh or on the leg just below the ankle
    lower extremity
  91. inflates the cuff to stop the blood flow in the artery for a few seconds
  92. lets the air out of the cuff which allows the blood flow to start again
  93. a numbered dial or a column of mercury can be used to record blood pressure
  94. wrapped around the upper arm
  95. metal part of the stethoscope which the tubing is fitted
  96. the headset is made up of ___
    • two eartubes
    • tension springs
    • eartips
  97. part of the stethoscope that is place on the location where the user wants to hear sound
    chest piece
  98. part of the stethoscope that fit into your ears
  99. part of the stethoscope where the eartips are attached
  100. consists of a bell and diaphragm
    tunable diaphragm
  101. used for light skin contact to hear low frequency sounds
  102. used with firm skin contact to hear high frequency sounds
  103. connect the stethoscope tubing to the chest piece
  104. latex free
  105. detect temperature by placing it in the tympanic membrane of a person
  106. aural thermometer measures heat through
    infrared light
  107. where the temperature is shown
    display window
  108. part of the digital thermometer used to detect the temperature
  109. to support the bulb