Biology 40s Exam - Kingdom Animalia (Vertebrates)

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  1. before birth what do all vertebrates have
    • dorsal notochord: eventually forms the backbone
    • post-anal tail
    • dorsal nerve cords: becomes spine
    • gill slits: at some point during development
  2. after birth what do all vertebrates have
    • endoskeleton
    • backbone/spine and well developed nervous system
    • closed circulatory system
    • ventral heart
    • regulate temperature one of two ways:
    • -ectotherm
    • -endotherm
  3. define ectotherm
    the internal body temperature is regulated by its surroundings
  4. define endotherm
    • an animal which can maintain it's own body temperature at a fixed temperature
    • ex) humans 37 degrees
  5. what are the 6 classes in phylum chordata
    • class condrichthyes 
    • class osteichthyes
    • class amphiba
    • class reptilia
    • class aves
    • class mammalia
  6. what are the characteristics of class chondrichthyes
    • cartilage (no bone)
    • ectotherm
    • 2 chambered heart
    • gas exchange through gills (4-7 each side)
    • lack swim bladders
    • covered in epidermal placoids (tooth-like scales)
    • use counter shading
  7. define counter shading
    • used for protection and predation
    • makes the animal camouflaged 
    • looking down at the animal, they blend with the sea
    • looking up at the animal, they blend with the syunlight
  8. describe shark feeding
    • find prey using sound waves, smell, and sight
    • can detect the electrical signals of other animals because of electroreceptors in their head
    • -a network of specialized cells that can detect electricity
  9. describe skates and rays
    • pectoral fins are attached to their heads
    • flattened and use camouflage 
    • gills located ventrally
    • spiracles: breathing holes located behind the eyes
    • teeth are flattened to crush molluscs
  10. what are the characteristics of class osteichthyes
    • bony fish
    • swim bladder present: fills with gas to help with buoyancy
    • ectotherms
    • aquatic
    • gas exchange through gills
    • two chambered heart
  11. describe class agnatha
    • jawless fish
    • ex) lampreys and hagfish
  12. what are the characteristics of class amphibia
    • ex)tadpoles, frogs, toads, newts, and caecilians
    • aquatic and terrestrial
    • ectotherms
    • 3 chambered heart
  13. describe gas exchange in amphibians
    • lungs in adults
    • juveniles may have gills
  14. describe amphibian movement
    • use four limbs (tetra pods)
    • caecilians: worm-like and don't have limbs (use bristles and segmentation)
    • tree frogs have special toe pads that stick on trees
    • swim using webbed feet
  15. describe the respiration system of amphibians
    • breathe through gills, skin, and lungs
    • take in oxygen through skin; ozygen enters the bloodstream directly
    • amphibians use lungs on land and diffusion in water
    • larvae use gills
  16. what are the two frog membranes
    • tympanic membrane
    • nictitating membrane
  17. describe the tympanic membrane
    • located just behind the eye
    • like an external eardrum
  18. describe the nictitating membrane
    • a third, semitransparent eyelid that covers the whole eye
    • helps the frog see under water and hife from predators
  19. what are the characteristics of class reptilia
    • ex) crocodiles, sea turtles, rattle snakes
    • amniotic egg
    • soft leathery shell
    • birds and mammals evolved from reptiles
    • ectotherms
    • 3-4 chambered heart
    • mostly terrestrial
    • gas exchange through lungs
  20. define amniotic egg
    eggs capable of being laid in dry conditions
  21. what are the adaptations of reptiles
    • protective shell (turtles)
    • dry, watertight skin, covered with overlapping scales (snakes)
    • limbs absent in some (snakes)
    • nest built for young
    • fertilize internally and lay eggs
    • some give birth to live bodies (garter snakes)
    • parthenogenesis
    • some lose their tail, have venom, or sharp teeth
    • shed skin
  22. define parthenogenesis
    a rare process in which eggs become embryos without male fertilization
  23. describe the vomeronasal organ
    • chemosensory organ in the roof of the mouth
    • scent particles are sensed when the snake flicks its tongue in and out
  24. describe thermo sensory
    • heat-sensing organ
    • in the pit below the eye and along the upper or lower jaw
  25. what are the characteristics of class aves
    • ex) robins, eagles, hawks, geese, swans
    • hollow bones for flight
    • lack teeth (beak)
    • endothermic
    • 4 chambered heart
    • front limbs are wings
    • legs covered in scales
    • have feathers (modified scales)
    • birds malt their feathers
    • lungs and air sacs
    • internal fertilization (lay eggs)
    • chicks use egg tooth to hatch
    • furcula or 'wishbone' is in the bird's chest which prevents chest cavity decompression during flight
    • most are carnivorous, some are scavengers
  26. what are the 5 types of feathers
    • contour
    • semiplume
    • filoplume
    • down
    • bristle
  27. define contour
    gives the shape and colour of bird
  28. define semiplume
    1/2 contour + 1/2 down; provides insulation
  29. define filoplume
    believed to have a sensory function
  30. define down
    provides insulation
  31. define bristle
    • found around the eyes and mouth
    • protective function
  32. why do scientists suggest that birds evolved from dinosaurs
    • reptiles and birds share common characteristics
    • the Archaeoteryx is the link between dinosaurs and modern day birds
  33. what is the characteristics of class mammalia
    • ex) humans, platypus, cats, whales, rhinos etc
    • hair
    • mammary glands: provide milk for young 
    • teeth
    • diaphragm: separates lungs/abdomen
    • lugns
    • endotherms
    • 4 chambered hear
  34. what are the 3 sub classes of mammals
    • monotremes: egg laying mammals
    • marsupials: pouched mammals
    • placentals: placenta for nutrients
  35. describe monotremes
    • egg laying mammalls
    • ex) platypus, anteater
    • carry eggs in pouches
    • body temp of ~32 degrees
    • nurse young after hatching
  36. describe marsupials
    • pouched animals
    • body temp ~35 degrees
    • give birth to live young but very undeveloped
    • in a protective pouch, young attach to nipples and continue to develop
  37. describe placentals
    • placenta for nutrients
    • most mammals (humans, whales)
    • body temp 37 degrees
    • placenta: nutritive connection between embryo and uterus
    • young are well-developed when born
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Biology 40s Exam - Kingdom Animalia (Vertebrates)
2015-01-26 09:33:25

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