English Grammar I
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Capitalization Rule #1
- first word of a sentence
- the pronoun I
- interjection O
Capitalization Rule #2
all words referring to God
Capitalization Rule #3
words that show family relationship if used as a name, but not if preceded by a possessive pronoun
Capitalization Rule #4
first word and all important words in titles
Capitalization Rule #5
- months of the year
- days of the week
- B.C and A.D.
Capitalization Rule #6
compass directions when referring to regions of the world but not compass directions
Capitalization Rule #7
- titles of persons when they precede a name or when used in place of a name.
- Dr., Mr., Mrs., Senator, President, Captain, etc.
Capitalization Rule #8
- salutation and closing of a letter
- Dear John
- Sincerely, Lucas
Capitalization Rule #9
the first word of a direct quote
Capitalization Rule #10
- proper nouns and adjectives
- Victorian literature
What is a sentence?
A sentence is a group of words expressing a complete thought.
What are the two parts of every sentence?
The two parts of every sentence are the subject and predicate.
What is a subject?
The subject tells who or what the sentence is about.
What is a predicate?
The predicate tell what the subject is or does.
Give the four types of sentences with definitions
- Declarative - makes a statement
- Imperative - gives a command or makes a request
- Interrogative - asks a question
- Exclamatory - expresses strong feeling
Give the eight parts of speech
What is a noun?
a word that names a person, place, thing, or idea
Name the four ways nouns may be classified
Nouns may be common or proper, concrete or abstract, collective, and compound.
What is a common noun? Give examples
A common noun names a non-specific person, place, or thing. It is not capitalized. (ex. man, country, building)
What is a proper noun? Give examples.
A proper noun names a specific person, place, or thing. It is capitalized. (ex. John, Italy, the White House)
What is a concrete noun? Give examples.
A concrete noun names something that can be perceived by the senses. (ex. table, book, smoke)
What is an abstract noun? Give examples.
An abstract noun names a quality, characteristic, or ideal that cannot be perceived by the senses. (ex. hope, beauty, love)
What is a compound noun? Give the three kinds with examples.
- The words can be joined into one word. (ex. doorstep)
- The words can be joined with hyphens (ex. sister-in-law)
- The words can be separate (ex. United States of America)
What is a collective noun? Give examples.
A collective noun names a group. (ex. team, flock, class)
Name and define the three grammar persons.
- first person (the person speaking)
- second person (the person spoken to)
- third person (the person spoken about)
What is a pronoun?
a word used in place of a noun
Give the subject personal pronouns in three persons. (nominative pronouns)
- he, she, it
Give the object personal pronouns in three persons. (objective pronouns)
- him, her, it
What is an adjective?
a word that modifies a noun or pronoun
Give the three questions adjectives answer with examples.
- Adjectives answer the questions:
- which one (ex. John gave Mary that rose)
- what kind (ex. John gave Mary a red rose)
- how much or how many (ex. John gave Mary six roses)
What is an adverb?
a word that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb
Give the four questions adverbs answer. Give examples.
- Adverbs answer the questions:
- how (ex. He walks gracefully.)
- when (ex. He walks early.)
- where (ex. He walks everywhere.)
- to what extent (ex. He walks often.)
What is a verb?
a word that shows action or being
What verb shows being or existence?
The verb to be shows being or existence.
Give all forms of the verb to be.
- is, was, were
- be, being, been
What is a physical action verb? Give examples.
A physical action verb expresses action that can be perceived by the senses. (ex. kick, run, eat)
What is a mental action verb? Give examples.
A mental action verb expresses action that cannot be perceived by the senses. (ex. think, know, believe)
What is a verb phrase? Give examples.
A verb phrase is made up of a main verb and one or more helping verbs. (ex. I have been walking for an hour. I should have walked yesterday.)
Give the common helping verbs.
- am, are, is, was, were, being, been
- have, has, had
- do, does, did
- may, might, must
- can, could
- will, would
- shall, should, ought
Give the first three English verb tenses and an example of each using I walk.
- Present tense - I walkPast tense - I walkedFuture tense - I will walk
End Mark Rule #1
Use a period at the end of a statement.
End Mark Rule #2
- Use a period at the end of an abbreviation. (ex. St., Rd., Mr., Dr.)
- Do not use a period for abbreviations of well-known phrases or names of organizations. (ex. KJV, USA, USPS)
- Use a period after each initial that is part of a name. (ex. C.S. Lewis)
End Mark Rule #3
Use an exclamation point at the end of an exclamation. (ex. What a beautiful sunrise!)
End Mark Rule #4
Use a question mark at the end of a question. (ex. What time is it?)
End Mark Rule #5
An imperative sentence may be followed by a period or an exclamation mark, depending on the force intended. (ex. Please close the door. Come here right now!)
Comma Rule #1
Use a comma to separate items in a series. (ex. I have pens, paper, pencils, and books in my backpack.)
Comma Rule #2
Use a comma to separate two or more adjectives preceding a noun. (ex. It was a gray, dreary morning.)
Comma Rule #3
- Use a comma in certain conventional situations.
- a. To separate items in addresses and dates (ex. We have lived at 12 Maple Street in Albany, NY, since March 17, 1990.)
- b. After the salutation of a friendly letter and the closing of any letter. (ex. Dear Sue, Sincerely, Sally)
- c. Use a comma after a name when followed by Jr., Sr., Ph.D. (ex. Martin Luther King, Jr.)
Apostrophe Rule #1
Add an apostrophe to form the possessive of a plural noun ending in s. (ex. All the boys' shoes were wet and muddy.
Apostrophe Rule #2
Add an apostrophe s ('s) to form the possessive of a singular noun or plural nouns not ending in s.
Apostrophe Rule #3
Add an apostrophe to indicate where letters have been omitted in a contraction. (ex. can't, didn't)
Quotation Marks Rule #1
Use quotation marks to enclose a direct quote - a person's exact words. (ex. Aslan said, "Once a king or queen in Narnia, always a king or queen."
Colon Rule #1
- Use a colon in certain conventional situations.
- a. between the hour and the minute (ex. 4:00 p.m.)
- b. between the chapter and verse for Bible references (ex. John 3:16)
Hyphen Rule #1
Hyphens are used in writing compound number words from twenty-one through ninety-nine.
Hyphen Rule #2
Hyphens are used in many compound words. (ex. great-grandfather)
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