OPTOM3131 (Disease)

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Author:
Anonymous
ID:
293767
Filename:
OPTOM3131 (Disease)
Updated:
2015-02-01 04:37:04
Tags:
eye diseases ocular
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Description:
Ocular Disease 3A
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  1. Trachiasis
    • Abnormal, misdirected growth of eyelashes
    • Signs: Corneal epithelial defects, red eye, tearing, foreign-body sensation -> infection, ulceration, pannus
    • Management: treat underlying cause and infection. Remove aberrant eyelashes
  2. Lid entropion
    Eye lid turns towards eye
  3. Anterior and Posterior Blepharitis
    • Very common inflammation of the eyelid margin, usually bilateral. 
    • Anterior: affects front edge of eyelid and eyelashes, glands of Moll or Zeis may be involved. Common ~1 in 10 with symptoms. May be Staphylococcal or Seborrhoeic.
  4. Trachoma
    • Bacterial infection of the eye caused by gram negative bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis
    • Serotypes A-C: classic trochoma from poor hygiene
    • Serotypes D-K: adult inclusion conjunctivitis (adult inclusion), neonatal conjunctivitis (chlamydia most common)
    • Serotypes L1-L3: lymphogranuloma venereum (sexually transmitted bacterial infection)
  5. 2 Phases of Trichiasis and Trochoma
    • Active Phase: usually children, conjunctival inflammation (follicles and papillae), limbal follicles, keratitis (inflammation of cornea)
    • Scarring/Cicatricial Phase: tarsal conjunctival scarring, distortion of eyelid & trichiasis, secondary trachiases/entropion & associated corneal scarring leading to blindness
  6. Distichiasis
    • Rare conditions where extra row of lashes grow from meibomian gland orifices, associated with trichiasis
    • Cause: congenital, acquired related to conjunctival scarring: chemical burns, pemphigoid, Stevens-Johnson syndrome
    • Treatment: surgical excision, cryotherapy, laser, lid splitting procedure (division into ant and post lamallae, cryotherapy to post lamallae, reposition of lamallae)
  7. Cicatricial Pemphigoid
    • Cicatricial: scar left by formation of new CT over a healing sore or wound
    • Pemphigoid: rare autoimmune blistering disease more common in elderly
    • CP: autoimmune blistering disease affects mucous membranes includes conjunctiva and skin
  8. Madarosis
    • Loss of eyelashes/eyebrows partial or complete
    • Cause: local disease, systemic disorders, infectious, skin-related, eyelash removal, trauma
  9. Poliosis
    • Premature whitening of hair which may involved lashes and eyebrows 
    • Causes: Ocular: blepharitis, opthalmia, uveitis; Systemic: Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome, an autoimmune disease that attacks melanocytes

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