9th Grade - Biology - Order in Diversity

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  1. When did biologist recognize the need to identify and organize organisms
    18th Centrury
  2. Was the first system developed before or after Darwin?
  3. A branching classification of all organisms based on shared characteristics
  4. Which languages were first used to name individual species?
    Greek and Latin
  5. A series of paired statements or questions used to identify organisms
    Dichotomous Key
  6. What is the 2-word naming system developed by Carolus Linnaeus
    Bionomial nomenclature
  7. How are scientific names written using binomial nomenclature?
    • 2 words
    • both in italics
    • 1st word Capital
    • 2nd word lower case
  8. A group of similar species
  9. A group of individuals able to interbreed and produce fertile offspring.
  10. How were organisms originally classified using Linnaean taxonomy?
    Strictly on similarities and differences shared among groups.
  11. How are organisms classified using modern methods?
    Based on evolutionary relationships
  12. The science of naming and grouping organisms
  13. What is the goal of systematics?
    Organize living things into groups that have biological meanings
  14. Biological groups based on systematics
    Taxa (taxon - singular)
  15. How many levels did Linnaeus's system have?
  16. How many levels did Linnaeus's final system have?
  17. What are the 7 levels of the Linnaean Classification System
    • Kingdom
    • Phylum
    • Class
    • Order
    • Family
    • Genus
    • Species
  18. How can you remember the order of the several levels?
    King Phillip Could Only Find Green Socks
  19. Several genera that share many similarities
  20. Closely related families
  21. Similar orders
  22. Organisms that are different but share important characteristics.  Include similar orders
  23. The largest of Linnaeus's taxonomic categories
  24. Why did scientist begin to rethink how to classify organisms
    Darwin's "Tree of Life" made them realize that classification should be based not only on similarities and differences, but also evolutionary relationships
  25. The evolutionary history of lineage
  26. What is the goal of evolutionary classification?
    Group species into larger categories that reflect lines of evolutionary descent
  27. Another name for Evolutionary Classification
    Phylogenetic Systematics
  28. In Phylogenetic systematics members that are more related are in the:
    a) higher taxa
    b) lower taxa
  29. What does a large taxon mean?
    The larger the farther back in time all of its members shared a common ancestor.
  30. A group of species that includes a single common ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor - living and extinct
  31. Group that includes a single common ancestor and ALL of its descendants
    Monophyletic Group
  32. How are clades different from Linnaean taxa?
    A clade must be monophyletic
  33. A group that includes a common ancestor but excludes one or more groups of descendants.
    Paraphyletic Group
  34. Can Evolutionary Classification have Paraphyletic groups?
  35. Evolutionary diagram with a branching pattern that links groups of organisms by showing how evolutionary lines, or lineages, branched off from common ancestors.
  36. The last point at which the two new lineages shared a common ancestor.
  37. The common ancestor shared by all of the organisms in the cladogram.
  38. A trait that arose in the most recent common ancestor of a particular lineage and was passed along to its descendants.  It is shared by all members of a clade and only by members of that clade.
    Derived character
  39. Do systematists use the absence of traits in their analysis
    No because distantly related groups of organisms can sometimes lose a characteristic. (example a snake used to have 4 limbs)
  40. What is another tool that can be used to classify organisms.
    DNA, especially mitochondria DNA
  41. How does DNA help classify organisms?
    The more derived genetic characters 2 species share, the more recently they shared a common ancestor and the more closely they are related in evolutionary terms.
  42. What where Linnaeus original 2 kingdoms
    Animalia and Plantae
  43. What are the 6 kingdoms of life as of today
    • Eubacteria
    • Archaebacteria
    • Protista
    • Fungi
    • Plantae
    • Animalia
  44. A larger, more inclusive category than a kingdom.  It is based mostly on the cellular level.
  45. What are the 3 Domains
    • Bacteria
    • Archaea
    • Eukarya
  46. Plants and animals are found in which domain?
  47. Kingdom Eubacteria is in which domain
  48. Kingdom Archaebacteria is found in which domain?
  49. How many kingdoms are found in the domain Eukarya
  50. The current hypotheses regarding evolutionary relationships among the taxa with the 3 domains.
    Tree of Life
  51. Domain Bacteria have the following characteristics:
    • Cell Type:  Prokaryote
    • Cell Structure:  Call walls with peptidoglycan
    • Number of Cells:  Unicellular
    • Mode of Nutrition:  Autotroph or heterotroph
  52. Domain Archaea have the following characteristics:
    • Cell Type:  Prokaryote
    • Cell Structure:  Cell walls without peptidoglycan
    • Number of cells:  Unicellular
    • Mode of Nutrition:  Autotroph or heterotroph

    Many of these can only survive in the absence of oxygen (example volcanic hot springs)
  53. The 4 kingdoms in Domain Eukarya have one major characteristic the same
    They have a nucleus.
  54. The name of the Swedish botanist who developed binomial nomenclature
    Carolus Linnaeus
  55. What kind of organisms are in the Kingdom Fungi
    • Multicellular
    • Eukaryotic
    • Consumers
  56. Where do fungi grow
    On the ground and they do NOT move
  57. How are fungi different from plant cells
    • 1.  lack chloroplasts
    • 2.  Cannot produce their own food
  58. What are the characteristics of Kingdom Fungi
    • Heterotrophic
    • Multicellular
    • Eukaryotic
    • Reproduction:  sexual & asexual
  59. Where do fungi get nutrients?
    Consume decaying organic matter
  60. What are the major groups of fungi
    • yeasts
    • bread molds
    • mushrooms
  61. Do fungal cells have cell walls?
  62. Fungi cannot move so they are called ____
  63. How are Kingdom Fungi and Kingdom Animalia the same?
    • Contain multicellular, eukaryotic organisms
    • Cannot produce their own food
  64. Kingdom Animalia must depend on other organisms to obtain energy so they are called
  65. What phylum contains vertebrates
  66. Are all Chordates vetebrates?
  67. What characteristic do all Chordates have
    a dorsal nerve cord during their embryonic stage of development
  68. Some of the major vertebrate groups
    • Fish
    • Amphibians
    • Retiles
    • Birds
    • Mammals
  69. What are the major invertebrate phyla
    • Phylum Porifera (sponges)
    • Phylum Cnidaria (jellyfish, hydra and anemones
    • Phylum Platyhelmintes (flatworms)
    • Phylum Nematoda (roundworms)
    • Phylum Annelida (segmented worms)
    • Phylum Mollusca (mollusks)
    • Phylum Echinodermata (sea stars and urchins
  70. What is the largest phylum
  71. What is the main characteristic of Phylum Arthropota
    hard exoskeleton
  72. What are major groups of arthropods
    • insects
    • arachnids
    • crustaceans
  73. How do most organisms in Kingdom Animalia reproduce
  74. Most bacteria feed off other organisms so they are
  75. What makes cyanobacteria unique
    • Autotrophic
    • capable of photosynthesis
  76. What do all bacteria have in their cell walls
    a protein called peptidoglycan
  77. Characteristics of Kingdom Archaebacteria
    • Unicellular
    • prokaryotes
    • Lack peptidoglycan (protein in cell wall)
  78. What is special about Archaebacteria cell walls
    Special surface-layer proteins that provide physical and chemical protection
  79. What is different with the RNA polymerase in Archaebacteria vs bacteria
    Archaebacteria have a more complex form that more closely resembles the RNA polymerase in eukaryotes
  80. What is unique about Archaebacteria's ribosomes
    • Similar in size to Eubacteria
    • Similar in structure to eukaryotes
  81. Which kingdom has the greatest diversity of metabolic processes?
  82. What is the advantage of the diverse metabolic processes of Kingdom Atchaebacteria?
    They can live in a lot of environmental conditions including extreme temperatures (high and low) high salinity, high acidity.

    Some scientists call this kingdom extremophiles
  83. Obtains energy from the chemical around them
  84. Most archaebacteria are ______ because they get energy from chemicals
  85. Characteristics of Kingdom Plantae
    • only multicellular
    • cell wall made of cellulose
    • all autotrophic
  86. Characteristics of Kingdom Protista
    • mostly unicellular
    • have a nucleus
    • free living
    • both autotrophs and heterotrophs
    • reproduce both sexually and asexually
  87. Which have more common characteristics:  genus or domain
  88. What are some types of bacteria
    • intestinal
    • disease-causing
    • bacteria used in food industry
  89. What are some of the graphical tools that are used
    • cladograms
    • phylogenetic trees
  90. What are the 4 shapes of bacteria
    • rod
    • sphere
    • comma
    • corkscrew
  91. What do bacteria cells lack
    membrane bound organelles
  92. What shape is bacteria's genetic material
    a single, large, circular chromosome that floats freely in the cytoplasm
  93. How do bacteria reproduce
    binary fission
Card Set:
9th Grade - Biology - Order in Diversity
2015-01-25 22:54:49
Biology Diversity

9th Grade Biology Order of Diversity
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