9th Grade - Biology - Order in Diversity
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When did biologist recognize the need to identify and organize organisms
Was the first system developed before or after Darwin?
A branching classification of all organisms based on shared characteristics
Which languages were first used to name individual species?
Greek and Latin
A series of paired statements or questions used to identify organisms
What is the 2-word naming system developed by Carolus Linnaeus
How are scientific names written using binomial nomenclature?
- 2 words
- both in italics
- 1st word Capital
- 2nd word lower case
A group of similar species
A group of individuals able to interbreed and produce fertile offspring.
How were organisms originally classified using Linnaean taxonomy?
Strictly on similarities and differences shared among groups.
How are organisms classified using modern methods?
Based on evolutionary relationships
The science of naming and grouping organisms
What is the goal of systematics?
Organize living things into groups that have biological meanings
Biological groups based on systematics
Taxa (taxon - singular)
How many levels did Linnaeus's system have?
How many levels did Linnaeus's final system have?
What are the 7 levels of the Linnaean Classification System
How can you remember the order of the several levels?
King Phillip Could Only Find Green Socks
Several genera that share many similarities
Closely related families
Organisms that are different but share important characteristics. Include similar orders
The largest of Linnaeus's taxonomic categories
Why did scientist begin to rethink how to classify organisms
Darwin's "Tree of Life" made them realize that classification should be based not only on similarities and differences, but also evolutionary relationships
The evolutionary history of lineage
What is the goal of evolutionary classification?
Group species into larger categories that reflect lines of evolutionary descent
Another name for Evolutionary Classification
In Phylogenetic systematics members that are more related are in the:
a) higher taxa
b) lower taxa
What does a large taxon mean?
The larger the farther back in time all of its members shared a common ancestor.
A group of species that includes a single common ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor - living and extinct
Group that includes a single common ancestor and ALL of its descendants
How are clades different from Linnaean taxa?
A clade must be monophyletic
A group that includes a common ancestor but excludes one or more groups of descendants.
Can Evolutionary Classification have Paraphyletic groups?
Evolutionary diagram with a branching pattern that links groups of organisms by showing how evolutionary lines, or lineages, branched off from common ancestors.
The last point at which the two new lineages shared a common ancestor.
The common ancestor shared by all of the organisms in the cladogram.
A trait that arose in the most recent common ancestor of a particular lineage and was passed along to its descendants. It is shared by all members of a clade and only by members of that clade.
Do systematists use the absence of traits in their analysis
No because distantly related groups of organisms can sometimes lose a characteristic. (example a snake used to have 4 limbs)
What is another tool that can be used to classify organisms.
DNA, especially mitochondria DNA
How does DNA help classify organisms?
The more derived genetic characters 2 species share, the more recently they shared a common ancestor and the more closely they are related in evolutionary terms.
What where Linnaeus original 2 kingdoms
Animalia and Plantae
What are the 6 kingdoms of life as of today
A larger, more inclusive category than a kingdom. It is based mostly on the cellular level.
Plants and animals are found in which domain?
Kingdom Eubacteria is in which domain
Kingdom Archaebacteria is found in which domain?
How many kingdoms are found in the domain Eukarya
The current hypotheses regarding evolutionary relationships among the taxa with the 3 domains.
Tree of Life
Domain Bacteria have the following characteristics:
- Cell Type: Prokaryote
- Cell Structure: Call walls with peptidoglycan
- Number of Cells: Unicellular
- Mode of Nutrition: Autotroph or heterotroph
Domain Archaea have the following characteristics:
- Cell Type: Prokaryote
- Cell Structure: Cell walls without peptidoglycan
- Number of cells: Unicellular
- Mode of Nutrition: Autotroph or heterotroph
Many of these can only survive in the absence of oxygen (example volcanic hot springs)
The 4 kingdoms in Domain Eukarya have one major characteristic the same
They have a nucleus.
The name of the Swedish botanist who developed binomial nomenclature
What kind of organisms are in the Kingdom Fungi
Where do fungi grow
On the ground and they do NOT move
How are fungi different from plant cells
- 1. lack chloroplasts
- 2. Cannot produce their own food
What are the characteristics of Kingdom Fungi
- Reproduction: sexual & asexual
Where do fungi get nutrients?
Consume decaying organic matter
What are the major groups of fungi
- bread molds
Do fungal cells have cell walls?
Fungi cannot move so they are called ____
How are Kingdom Fungi and Kingdom Animalia the same?
- Contain multicellular, eukaryotic organisms
- Cannot produce their own food
Kingdom Animalia must depend on other organisms to obtain energy so they are called
What phylum contains vertebrates
Are all Chordates vetebrates?
What characteristic do all Chordates have
a dorsal nerve cord during their embryonic stage of development
Some of the major vertebrate groups
What are the major invertebrate phyla
- Phylum Porifera (sponges)
- Phylum Cnidaria (jellyfish, hydra and anemones
- Phylum Platyhelmintes (flatworms)
- Phylum Nematoda (roundworms)
- Phylum Annelida (segmented worms)
- Phylum Mollusca (mollusks)
- Phylum Echinodermata (sea stars and urchins
What is the largest phylum
What is the main characteristic of Phylum Arthropota
What are major groups of arthropods
How do most organisms in Kingdom Animalia reproduce
Most bacteria feed off other organisms so they are
What makes cyanobacteria unique
- capable of photosynthesis
What do all bacteria have in their cell walls
a protein called peptidoglycan
Characteristics of Kingdom Archaebacteria
- Lack peptidoglycan (protein in cell wall)
What is special about Archaebacteria cell walls
Special surface-layer proteins that provide physical and chemical protection
What is different with the RNA polymerase in Archaebacteria vs bacteria
Archaebacteria have a more complex form that more closely resembles the RNA polymerase in eukaryotes
What is unique about Archaebacteria's ribosomes
- Similar in size to Eubacteria
- Similar in structure to eukaryotes
Which kingdom has the greatest diversity of metabolic processes?
What is the advantage of the diverse metabolic processes of Kingdom Atchaebacteria?
They can live in a lot of environmental conditions including extreme temperatures (high and low) high salinity, high acidity.
Some scientists call this kingdom extremophiles
Obtains energy from the chemical around them
Most archaebacteria are ______ because they get energy from chemicals
Characteristics of Kingdom Plantae
- only multicellular
- cell wall made of cellulose
- all autotrophic
Characteristics of Kingdom Protista
- mostly unicellular
- have a nucleus
- free living
- both autotrophs and heterotrophs
- reproduce both sexually and asexually
Which have more common characteristics: genus or domain
What are some types of bacteria
- bacteria used in food industry
What are some of the graphical tools that are used
- phylogenetic trees
What are the 4 shapes of bacteria
What do bacteria cells lack
membrane bound organelles
What shape is bacteria's genetic material
a single, large, circular chromosome that floats freely in the cytoplasm
How do bacteria reproduce
What would you like to do?
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