Kaplan biology 4-5

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Kaplan biology 4-5
2015-01-24 23:50:16

biology 4-5
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  1. where do chromatids bind?
  2. in S phase does the ploidy change?
    no, 46 chromosomes and 92 chromatids
  3. spindles form in what phase?
  4. chromatin
    chromosomes during prophase
  5. where are centrioles located?
  6. what are spindle fibers created from?
  7. asters
    microtubule attachment points that attaches to chromosomes
  8. describe binary fission
    • circular chromosomes attaches to cell wall
    • replicated, while cell grow in size, plasma membrane and cell wall grow inward to invaginate
  9. what are the types of asexual reproduction?
    • budding
    • regeneration (equal replication and unequal cytokinesis)
    • parthenogenesis (organism from unfertilized egg
  10. what is the reduction division
    meiosis I
  11. synapsis
    homologous chromosomes come together and interwine
  12. tetrad
    four chromatids
  13. disjunction
    homologous pairs separate and are pulled to opposite sides of the cell
  14. are cells haploid or diploid in telophase I?
    haploid because homologous chromosomes are separated
  15. where does zygote form?
    fallopian tube
  16. what are the two components of testes?
    • seminiferous tubules
    • interstital cells (Leydig)
  17. seminiferious tubules
    sperm production (nourished by Sertoli cells)
  18. interstitial cells (Leydig)
    secrete testosterone and androgens
  19. where are testes located?
    in scrotum, hangs below the penis
  20. where are sperms stored until ejaculation?
  21. where does sperm travel through during ejaculation?
    ejaculatory duct and urethra
  22. semen
    sperm with seminal fluid produced by seminal vesicle, prostate gland and bulbourethral gland)
  23. process of spermatogenesis
    • spermatogonia (diploid)
    • primary spermatocyte (2n) Meiosis I
    • secondary spermatocyte (n)
    • spermatids (n) Meiosis II
    • spermatozoa
  24. where does the egg move into fallopian tube via?
    abdominal cavity
  25. outline from tube to vaginal canal
    fallopian tube, uterus, cervix and vaginal canal
  26. what kind of oocytes does females have at birth?
    primary oocyte (2n) frozen in prophase I
  27. each month what happens to the primary oocyte?
    one oocyte per month will complete meiosis I to form secondary oocyte and polar body
  28. what stage is secondary oocyte froze in until fertilization?
    metaphase II
  29. what surrounds the oocyte?
    zona pellucida and corona radiata
  30. what is the progression of oogenesis?
    • primary (2n) Meiosis
    • secondary (n) fertilization, complete meiosis II
  31. cortical reaction
    ca2+ released to cytoplasm from membrane to prevent multiple fertilization
  32. monozygot
    identical twins from zygote split into 2
  33. dizygotic twins
    2 eggs released in same cycle (non-identical DNA)
  34. what phase does spindle apparatus interact with kinetochore fibers?
  35. with what is the oocyte drawn into fallopian tube from abdominal cavity?
  36. what happens if oocyte is fertilized?
    implant in uterine wall
  37. what connects the epididymis to ejaculatory duct?
    vas deferens
  38. what phase in meiosis does cell become haploid?
    after telophase I
  39. interkinesis
    during telophase I, chromosomes partially uncoil before entering meiosis II
  40. determinate cells
    committed to differentiating into certain type of cell
  41. indeterminate
    cell can still develop into complete organisms
  42. morula
    solid mass, several divisions/cleavages later
  43. blastula
    • blasted out cavity
    • fluid filled inner cavity is known as blastocoel
  44. what is in blastocyst
    inner cell mass (gives rise to organism) and trophoblast (gives rise to chorion and later placenta)
  45. where does blastocyst settle to implant?
    in endometrium
  46. what promotes the proliferation of endometrial (mucosal) layer?
  47. what allows embryo to settle into uterine wall?
    proteolytic enzymes
  48. gastrulation
    generation of 3 distinct layers
  49. in deuterosomes (humans) what develops into anus
  50. in protosomes blastopore develops into
  51. ectoderm
    attractoderm (eyes, looks, smarts)
  52. mesoderm
    how we get from place to place (bone, muscle, heart and blood)
  53. endoderm
    digestive tract and lungs
  54. adrenal cortex is developed from what layer during gastrulation
  55. adrenal medulla is developed from what layer during gastrulation
    ectoderm b/c it has nervous tissue.
  56. notochord is developed from what layer?
  57. what gives rise to central nervous system?
    neural tube
  58. umbilical cord
    provides nutrition for fetus, attaches to placenta (chorion)
  59. amniotic fluid
    shock absorber during pregnancy
  60. yolk sac
    site of early blood vessel development
  61. difference between fetal and maternal Hb-O2 dissociation curve
    fetal is more to the left, b/c it has higher affinity for oxygen so it can steal oxygen from mom
  62. what is underdeveloped in fetus
    lungs and liver
  63. foramen ovale
    connects right and left atria so that blood entering from right atrium from superior vena cava will flow into left atrium and pumped into the system
  64. ateries do what?
    carry blood away from heart
  65. umbilical arteries
    carry deoxygenated blood away from fetus
  66. what state is the greatest nuclear to cytoplasm material ratio?
  67. when baby is born what happens to resistance in pulmonary artery?
    down b/c baby needs to breath on its own
  68. what gestation period does baby develop brain?
    first trimester
  69. ductus venosus
    allows blood to bypass liver before converging with inferior vena cava
  70. ductus arteriosus
    diverts blood from pulmonary artery to the aorta (divert blood from lungs)
  71. what is the role of pulmonary arteries?
    carry blood from right ventricle to lungs taking deoxygenated blood fom body to lungs
  72. role of superior vena cava
    bring in deoxygenated blood from upper body
  73. what happens to pressure in right atrium when umbilical blood flow stops
    decrease in blood pressure in inferior vena cava and decrease in pressure in right atrium