Kaplan biology 4-5
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Kaplan biology 4-5
where do chromatids bind?
in S phase does the ploidy change?
no, 46 chromosomes and 92 chromatids
spindles form in what phase?
chromosomes during prophase
where are centrioles located?
what are spindle fibers created from?
microtubule attachment points that attaches to chromosomes
describe binary fission
circular chromosomes attaches to cell wall
replicated, while cell grow in size, plasma membrane and cell wall grow inward to invaginate
what are the types of asexual reproduction?
regeneration (equal replication and unequal cytokinesis)
parthenogenesis (organism from unfertilized egg
what is the reduction division
homologous chromosomes come together and interwine
homologous pairs separate and are pulled to opposite sides of the cell
are cells haploid or diploid in telophase I?
haploid because homologous chromosomes are separated
where does zygote form?
what are the two components of testes?
interstital cells (Leydig)
sperm production (nourished by Sertoli cells)
interstitial cells (Leydig)
secrete testosterone and androgens
where are testes located?
in scrotum, hangs below the penis
where are sperms stored until ejaculation?
where does sperm travel through during ejaculation?
ejaculatory duct and urethra
sperm with seminal fluid produced by seminal vesicle, prostate gland and bulbourethral gland)
process of spermatogenesis
primary spermatocyte (2n) Meiosis I
secondary spermatocyte (n)
spermatids (n) Meiosis II
where does the egg move into fallopian tube via?
outline from tube to vaginal canal
fallopian tube, uterus, cervix and vaginal canal
what kind of oocytes does females have at birth?
primary oocyte (2n) frozen in prophase I
each month what happens to the primary oocyte?
one oocyte per month will complete meiosis I to form secondary oocyte and polar body
what stage is secondary oocyte froze in until fertilization?
what surrounds the oocyte?
zona pellucida and corona radiata
what is the progression of oogenesis?
primary (2n) Meiosis
secondary (n) fertilization, complete meiosis II
ca2+ released to cytoplasm from membrane to prevent multiple fertilization
identical twins from zygote split into 2
2 eggs released in same cycle (non-identical DNA)
what phase does spindle apparatus interact with kinetochore fibers?
with what is the oocyte drawn into fallopian tube from abdominal cavity?
what happens if oocyte is fertilized?
implant in uterine wall
what connects the epididymis to ejaculatory duct?
what phase in meiosis does cell become haploid?
after telophase I
during telophase I, chromosomes partially uncoil before entering meiosis II
committed to differentiating into certain type of cell
cell can still develop into complete organisms
solid mass, several divisions/cleavages later
blasted out cavity
fluid filled inner cavity is known as blastocoel
what is in blastocyst
inner cell mass (gives rise to organism) and trophoblast (gives rise to chorion and later placenta)
where does blastocyst settle to implant?
what promotes the proliferation of endometrial (mucosal) layer?
what allows embryo to settle into uterine wall?
generation of 3 distinct layers
in deuterosomes (humans) what develops into anus
in protosomes blastopore develops into
attractoderm (eyes, looks, smarts)
how we get from place to place (bone, muscle, heart and blood)
digestive tract and lungs
adrenal cortex is developed from what layer during gastrulation
adrenal medulla is developed from what layer during gastrulation
ectoderm b/c it has nervous tissue.
notochord is developed from what layer?
what gives rise to central nervous system?
provides nutrition for fetus, attaches to placenta (chorion)
shock absorber during pregnancy
site of early blood vessel development
difference between fetal and maternal Hb-O2 dissociation curve
fetal is more to the left, b/c it has higher affinity for oxygen so it can steal oxygen from mom
what is underdeveloped in fetus
lungs and liver
connects right and left atria so that blood entering from right atrium from superior vena cava will flow into left atrium and pumped into the system
ateries do what?
carry blood away from heart
carry deoxygenated blood away from fetus
what state is the greatest nuclear to cytoplasm material ratio?
when baby is born what happens to resistance in pulmonary artery?
down b/c baby needs to breath on its own
what gestation period does baby develop brain?
allows blood to bypass liver before converging with inferior vena cava
diverts blood from pulmonary artery to the aorta (divert blood from lungs)
what is the role of pulmonary arteries?
carry blood from right ventricle to lungs taking deoxygenated blood fom body to lungs
role of superior vena cava
bring in deoxygenated blood from upper body
what happens to pressure in right atrium when umbilical blood flow stops
decrease in blood pressure in inferior vena cava and decrease in pressure in right atrium