Kaplan Biology Chapter 6-7
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Kaplan Biology Chapter 6-7
endoskeleton vs. exoskeleton
endo (what we have, on inside)
exo (lobsters, need to shed when growing)
relates to cartilage.
lack of cartilage in joints
secretes matrix called chondrion found in cartilage
compact bone characterized by cylindrical shafts
dilated ends of bone
has spongy inside
surrounds long bone to protect it
serve as site of muscle attachment
can differentiate to osteoblasts
separate the epiphysis and diaphysis
site of longitudinal growth
what are osteocytes and where is it located
mature bone cells and it's located in lacunae
what are canaliculi
little canals that allow nutrient and waste exchange to each lacunae
hardening of cartilage
what is involved in bone formation
parathyroid and calcitonin
how does estrogen prevent osteoporosis?
stimulate osteoblast activity
bone connects to bone
ease the movement of one structure to another.
coats the surfaces of bones so impact is restricted to the lubricated joint cartilage
what kind of cells make up muscles
skeletal, smooth, cardiac
basic contractile unit of a muscle
sarcomeres put together
endoplasmic reticulum in muscle cells
has a lot of Ca2+
cytoplasm in muscle
sarcolemma (cell membrane)
connected to sarcolemma and oriented perpendicular to myofibrils and allowing for ions to flow.
single polypeptide chain, binds oxygen more tightly than hemoglobin
actin, also has troponin and tropomyosin
contains only thin filaments
which kind of muscle cell is multinucleiated
what results in the release of massive Ca2+ from SR during contraction?
action potential at neuromuscular junction conducted along sarcolemma and t-tubule
what happens when Ca2+ binds to troponin?
tropomyosin shifts and exposes myosin binding sites on actin
what happens to myosin and actin when ATP binds?
causes dissociation of myosin from actin
how does muscle increase force?
by increasing number of fibers they recruit
prolonged contractions and no time to relax
what nervous system controls skeletal muscle?
somatic nervous system (voluntary)
what nervous systems control smooth and cardiac muscle?
autonomic nervous system (involuntary)
where are smooth muscle cells found?
digestive tract, bladder, uterus, blood vessel walls
carries extra P so when muscle need ATP, then it can donate the phosphate
three types of connective tissue
reticular (branched, join connective tissue to adjoining tissue)
secrete substances that are components of extracellular fibers
what are two types of loose connective tissue?
fibroblasts and macrophages
attach muscle to bone
connect bone to bone
what kind of muscle cells are straited?
cardiac and skeletal
bone cells that secrete bone matrix
mature osteoblasts that eventually gets surrounded by matrix and primary role is bone maintenance
skull is from this kind of bone formation
red fibers vs. white fibers
long distance runners have more red muscle fibers (more myoglobin)
increase in activity of osteoclasts and decrease in activity of osteoblasts
increase in blood Ca2+ can promote osteoblast activity
from mouth to anus
oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine
mechanical digestion in the mouth
part of respiratory tract
covers trachea during swallowing
hat kind of glands are in the gastric (stomach) mucosa
gastic gland and pyloric glands
what kind of cells does gastric glands secrete?
chief cells (pepsinogen, which is zymogen of pepsin)
parietal cells (secrete HCl)
what actives pepsinogen?
what does pyloric glands secrete?
gastrin (induces stomach to secrete more HCl) produces chyme
what is the main function of the stomach?
what connects the stomach to the small intestine?
three parts of the small intestine?
duodenum, jejunum, and ileum
what is the inner wall of small intestine covered in?
villi, each then is covered in microvilli, which increases absorptive capabilities
what segment of small intestine does most digestion occur?
bicarbonate helps to neutralize acid
large polysaccharide into small disaccharide, breaks down carbs
what kind of peptidases are in pancreas?
trypsmogen, chymotrypsinogen, elastinogen, carboxyl peptidase
produced by small intestine actives tryposinogen to trypsin (which activates other zymogens)
where is bile produced and stored?
liver, gall bladder
hormone that triggers gall bladder to release bile into duodenum
how is CCK triggered?
CCK is released by small intestine in response to movement of chyme out of stomach and into intestine
function of bile
emulsify fats and cholesterol into micelles
hormone that stimulates pancreatic juice fom pancreas
enzymes and hormones secreted by small intestine
digest disaccharides (maltase, lactase, and sucrase)
peptidase, enterokinase, secretin and CCK
slows the movement of chyme and allows more time to digest fat
salivary amylase, pancreatic amylase, maltase, sucrase and lactase
jejunum and ileum main functions
nutrients move across epithelial cells into intestinal capillaries b/c of gradient created by blood carrying nutrients away
HDL and LDL
health and unhealthy
triglycerides and esterified cholesterol are packaged into and enter into bloodstream by
why is LDL bad?
chylomicros are processed in bloodstream to LDL (can lead to atherosclerosis)
LDL taken up by liver-repackaged into HDL, VLDL, and LDL
which are fat soluble vitamins
A, D, E, K
three parts of large intestine
cecum, colon, and rectum
large intestine is responsible for?
what connects small and large intestine and contains appendix?
absorbing water and salts in undigested material from small intestine
storage for feces
internal (involuntary) sphincter
external (voluntary) sphincter
what gives rise to anus in humans?
what absorbs chylomicrons into lymph vessels?