Kaplan Biology Chapter 6-7

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Kaplan Biology Chapter 6-7
2015-01-25 19:01:17

biology 6-7
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  1. endoskeleton vs. exoskeleton
    • endo (what we have, on inside)
    • exo (lobsters, need to shed when growing)
  2. chondro
    relates to cartilage.
  3. arthritis
    lack of cartilage in joints
  4. chondrocytes
    secretes matrix called chondrion found in cartilage
  5. diaphysis
    compact bone characterized by cylindrical shafts
  6. epiphysis
    • dilated ends of bone
    • has spongy inside
  7. periosteum
    • surrounds long bone to protect it
    • serve as site of muscle attachment
    • can differentiate to osteoblasts
  8. epiphyseal plate
    • separate the epiphysis and diaphysis
    • site of longitudinal growth
  9. what are osteocytes and where is it located
    mature bone cells and it's located in lacunae
  10. what are canaliculi
    little canals that allow nutrient and waste exchange to each lacunae
  11. endochondral ossificatio
    hardening of cartilage
  12. what is involved in bone formation
    parathyroid and calcitonin
  13. how does estrogen prevent osteoporosis?
    stimulate osteoblast activity
  14. ligaments
    bone connects to bone
  15. synovial fluid
    ease the movement of one structure to another.
  16. articular cartilage
    coats the surfaces of bones so impact is restricted to the lubricated joint cartilage
  17. what kind of cells make up muscles
    skeletal, smooth, cardiac
  18. sarcomere
    basic contractile unit of a muscle
  19. myofibrils
    sarcomeres put together
  20. sarcoplasmic reticulum
    • endoplasmic reticulum in muscle cells
    • surrounds myofibrils
    • has a lot of Ca2+
  21. sarcoplasm
    • cytoplasm in muscle
    • sarcolemma (cell membrane)
  22. t-tubules
    connected to sarcolemma and oriented perpendicular to myofibrils and allowing for ions to flow.
  23. myoglobin
    single polypeptide chain, binds oxygen more tightly than hemoglobin
  24. thick filaments
  25. thin filaments
    actin, also has troponin and tropomyosin
  26. H zone
    thick filaments
  27. I band
    contains only thin filaments
  28. which kind of muscle cell is multinucleiated
  29. what results in the release of massive Ca2+ from SR during contraction?
    action potential at neuromuscular junction conducted along sarcolemma and t-tubule
  30. what happens when Ca2+ binds to troponin?
    tropomyosin shifts and exposes myosin binding sites on actin
  31. what happens to myosin and actin when ATP binds?
    causes dissociation of myosin from actin
  32. how does muscle increase force?
    by increasing number of fibers they recruit
  33. tetanus
    prolonged contractions and no time to relax
  34. what nervous system controls skeletal muscle?
    somatic nervous system (voluntary)
  35. what nervous systems control smooth and cardiac muscle?
    autonomic nervous system (involuntary)
  36. where are smooth muscle cells found?
    • digestive tract, bladder, uterus, blood vessel walls
    • peristalsis
  37. creatine phosphate
    carries extra P so when muscle need ATP, then it can donate the phosphate
  38. three types of connective tissue
    • elastic
    • collagenous
    • reticular (branched, join connective tissue to adjoining tissue)
  39. fibroblasts
    secrete substances that are components of extracellular fibers
  40. what are two types of loose connective tissue?
    fibroblasts and macrophages
  41. tendons
    attach muscle to bone
  42. ligaments
    connect bone to bone
  43. what kind of muscle cells are straited?
    cardiac and skeletal
  44. osteoblasts
    bone cells that secrete bone matrix
  45. osteoclasts
    bone resorption
  46. osteocytes
    mature osteoblasts that eventually gets surrounded by matrix and primary role is bone maintenance
  47. intramembranous ossification
    skull is from this kind of bone formation
  48. red fibers vs. white fibers
    long distance runners have more red muscle fibers (more myoglobin)
  49. osteoporosis
    • increase in activity of osteoclasts and decrease in activity of osteoblasts
    • increase in blood Ca2+ can promote osteoblast activity
  50. from mouth to anus
    oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine
  51. mastication
    mechanical digestion in the mouth
  52. larynx
    part of respiratory tract
  53. epiglottis
    covers trachea during swallowing
  54. hat kind of glands are in the gastric (stomach) mucosa
    gastic gland and pyloric glands
  55. what kind of cells does gastric glands secrete?
    • mucous cells
    • chief cells (pepsinogen, which is zymogen of pepsin)
    • parietal cells (secrete HCl)
  56. what actives pepsinogen?
  57. what does pyloric glands secrete?
    gastrin (induces stomach to secrete more HCl) produces chyme
  58. what is the main function of the stomach?
  59. what connects the stomach to the small intestine?
    pyloric sphincter
  60. three parts of the small intestine?
    duodenum, jejunum, and ileum
  61. what is the inner wall of small intestine covered in?
    villi, each then is covered in microvilli, which increases absorptive capabilities
  62. what segment of small intestine does most digestion occur?
  63. pancreatic juice
    bicarbonate helps to neutralize acid
  64. pancreatic amylase
    large polysaccharide into small disaccharide, breaks down carbs
  65. what kind of peptidases are in pancreas?
    trypsmogen, chymotrypsinogen, elastinogen, carboxyl peptidase
  66. enterokinase
    produced by small intestine actives tryposinogen to trypsin (which activates other zymogens)
  67. where is bile produced and stored?
    liver, gall bladder
  68. CCK (cholecytokinin)
    hormone that triggers gall bladder to release bile into duodenum
  69. how is CCK triggered?
    CCK is released by small intestine in response to movement of chyme out of stomach and into intestine
  70. function of bile
    emulsify fats and cholesterol into micelles
  71. secretin
    hormone that stimulates pancreatic juice fom pancreas
  72. enzymes and hormones secreted by small intestine
    • digest disaccharides (maltase, lactase, and sucrase)
    • peptidase, enterokinase, secretin and CCK
  73. enterogastrone
    slows the movement of chyme and allows more time to digest fat
  74. salivary amylase, pancreatic amylase, maltase, sucrase and lactase
    digest carbohydrates
  75. jejunum and ileum main functions
    • absorptive
    • nutrients move across epithelial cells into intestinal capillaries b/c of gradient created by blood carrying nutrients away
  76. HDL and LDL
    health and unhealthy
  77. chylomicrons
    triglycerides and esterified cholesterol are packaged into and enter into bloodstream by
  78. why is LDL bad?
    • chylomicros are processed in bloodstream to LDL (can lead to atherosclerosis)
    • LDL taken up by liver-repackaged into HDL, VLDL, and LDL
  79. which are fat soluble vitamins
    A, D, E, K
  80. three parts of large intestine
    cecum, colon, and rectum
  81. large intestine is responsible for?
    water absorption
  82. what connects small and large intestine and contains appendix?
  83. colon function
    absorbing water and salts in undigested material from small intestine
  84. rectum
    storage for feces
  85. anus
    • internal (involuntary) sphincter
    • external (voluntary) sphincter
  86. what gives rise to anus in humans?
  87. what absorbs chylomicrons into lymph vessels?