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What's in a cell envelope
- Plasma membrane
- Cell wall
What is a Glycocalyx?
Polysaccharide or sugar matrix outside the cell. Either capsules or slime layers.
s-layer or surface layers are made of____. What do they do
- 1) monomolecular protein layers (100's of proteins.
- 2) They protect against ions/PH, osmotic stress, enzymes, and predators. They promote adhesion to surfaces.
what does the slime layer of the Glycocalys do
- 1) facilitates motility,
- 2) form a dificult to remove biofilm,
- 3) protects against antibiotics.
Myoplasms are cells ___ a cell wall.
Their size is ___.
They have _____ peptedoglycan layer.
Some cause _____.
and are an____ _____ bacteria
- as small as the largest virus,
- no peptedoglycan,
- obligate intracellular bacteria
What are Pili, and name two types
- Pili are long hair like appendages.
- Sex pili for conjugation.
- Type IV pili for motion, which is used like a hook.
Long whip-like structures often used for movement, but some are specialized
monotrichous flagelar arrangement
one hair on one end
one flagellum on each end
Clumps of flagella on one end or both ends
flegella cover the bacterium
What is doubling time or generation time?
time it takes to undergo binary fission.
How do bacteria reproduce?
Binary fission, which is asexual reproduction where one cell becomes 2 identical cells.
What shape is cocus bacteria
what shape are 3 spiral bacteria?
- vibro: Comma
- Spirilla: thick rigid spiral
- Spirochete: thin flexible spira;
Irregular: does not fit into any other category.
1) mycobacteriam are gram____, but ___ stain purple because of ____ __. 2) How do you stain them?
- 1)gram-negative, but don't stain purple because of waxy lipids.
- 2) Acid fast staining.
- 1) as small as the largest virus.
- 2) obligate intracellular bacteria (must live in another cell, and can cause disease.
- 3) neither gram-negative or gram-positive