Card Set Information

2015-01-25 12:35:33
vc edu Psych1010

Study guide for first test
Show Answers:

  1. Which hormone is responsible in part for "energy, alertness, concentration", "impulse control, anxiety, irritability", "mood, cognition", "attention"
  2. Which hormone is responsible in part for "impulse, anxiety, irritability", "mood, cognition", "sex, appetite, aggression", "memory, obsession compulsion"
  3. Which hormone is responsible in part for "attention", "pleasure, reward, motivation, drive", "sex, appetite, aggression", "mood, cognition"
  4. What is the Cerebrum or Cortex?
    The cerebrum or cortex is the largest part of the human brain, associated with higher brain function such as thought and action. The cerebral cortex is divided into four sections, called "lobes"
  5. Name the four lobes.
    Frontal, Parietal, Occipital, Temporal
  6. What does the Frontal lobe do?
    associated with reasoning, planning, parts of speech, movement, emotions, and problem solving.
  7. What does the Parietal lobe do?
    associated with movement, orientation, recognition, perception of stimuli
  8. What does the Occipital lobe do?
    associated with visual processing
  9. What does the Temporal lobe do?
    associated with perception and recognition of auditory stimuli, memory, and speech
  10. Why does the brain have "wrinkles"?
    To increase surface area and the amount of neurons.
  11. The brain is divided into two hemispheres and is connected by this.
    Corpus Collosum
  12. Which side of the brain controls which side of the body and what is this called?
    Left side of brain controls right side of body. The right side of brain controls left side of body. This is known as contra-laterality.
  13. What is Contra-Laterality?
    The term for the process of the left side of the brain controlling the right side of the body and vice versa.
  14. Name the three parts of the Brain Stem.
    Midbrain, Pons, Medulla
  15. What is the Medulla?
    The part of the brain stem that is between the pons and the spinal cord. It is responsible for maintaining body functions like breathing and heartrate.
  16. What is the Pons?
    In the hindbrain between the midbrain and the medulla. It is involved in motor control and sensory analysis. or example, information from the ear first enters the brain in the pons. It has parts that are important for the level of consciousness and for sleep. Some structures within the pons are linked to the cerebellum, thus are involved in movement and posture.
  17. What is the Midbrain?
    It is above the pons and attaches to the hippocampus. It is involved in functions such as vision, hearing, eyemovement, and voluntary body movement.
  18. What is the Hippocampus?
    Part of the Limbic System. It is the base medial (bottom center) part of the Temporal lobe. important for learning and memory . Important for learning and memory and for converting short term memory to more permanent memory, and for recalling spatial relationships.
  19. What is the Amygdala?
    Part of the Limbic System. It is involved in memory, emotion, and fear. Located in the front medial (front center) part of the temporal lobe. Triggers "fight or flight" reaction.
  20. What is the Hypothalamus?
    Part of the Limbic System. It is ventral (in front of) the Thalamus. It is involved in functions including homeostasis, emotion, thirst, hunger, circadian rhythms, and control of the autonomic nervous system. In addition, it controls the pituitary. It is associated with regulation and coordination of movement, posture, and balance.
  21. What is the Corpus Collusom?
    A bridge of fibers passing information between the two cerebral hemispheres.
  22. What is the Thalamus?
    Part of the Limbic System. Deep in the forebrain. It is the relay center for the Cortex and handles almost all incoming and outgoing signals.
  23. What is the Cerbellum?
    Located below the Occiptal lobe and behind the brain stem, looks a little like a bushy tree.
  24. What is the Pituitary Gland?
    It is a small grapelike structure dangling off the hippocampus. The "Master" gland that regulates other endocrine glands.
  25. What is the Reticular Formation?
    A group of fibers that carry stimulation related to sleep and arousal through the brain stem.
  26. What are sensory neurons?
    Also known as "Afferents", they carry messages from the brain to the spinal cord.
  27. What are motor neurons?
    Also known as "Efferents", they control voluntary movements.
  28. What are Interneural neurons?
    Neurons the communicate to each other.
  29. What is a Dentrite?
    The receptor of the neuron. Like a TV aerial antenna.
  30. What is the Axon?
    The tail of the neuron between the cell body and the synaptic terminals. It carries information to be passed on.
  31. What is the myelin sheath?
    The myelin sheath is a protective layer of fat on the axon that protects it, makes the impulses pass quicker, and removes toxins and garbage from around the axon.
  32. What is the Synaptic Cleft?
    The space between the neurotransmitter and the receptor.
  33. What are Neurotransmitters?
    Chemicals released from synaptic vesicles that communicates between neurons, to and from the brain, to the muscles, nerves, and from the senses.
  34. What are the two structures of the Central Nervous System (CNS)?
    The brain and spinal cord.
  35. What is the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)?
    It consists of the nerves and ganglia outside of the brain and spinal cord. The main function of the PNS is to connect the central nervous system (CNS) to the limbs and organs.
  36. What two nervous systems is the peripheral nervous system divided into?
    The Somatic Nervous System and the Autonomic Nervous System
  37. What is the Somatic Nervous System?
    Associated with skeletal muscle voluntary control of body movements. The SoNS consists of afferent and efferent nerves. Afferent nerves are responsible for relaying sensation to the central nervous system; efferent nerves are responsible for stimulating muscle contraction, including all the non-sensory neurons connected with skeletal muscles and skin.
  38. What is the Autonomic Nervous System?
    also known as the visceral nervous system and involuntary nervous system, is a division of the peripheral nervous system that influences the function of internal organs. The autonomic nervous system is a control system that acts largely unconsciously and regulates the heart rate, digestion, respiratory rate, pupillary response, urination, and sexual arousal. This system is the primary mechanism in control of the fight-or-flight response.
  39. What are the two parts of the Autonomic Nervous System?
    Sympathetic and Parasympathetic nervous systems.
  40. What is the Sympathetic Nervous System?
    The "Fight or Flight" response
  41. What is the Parasympathetic Nervous System?
    The "Rest & Digest" or "Feed & Breed" response.
  42. What is the hindbrain?
    The Cerebellum, the Medulla, and Pons
  43. Loss of this neurotransmitter causes motor tremors often associated with the use of Meth and Parkinson's Disease.
  44. Lack of this neurotransmitter can cause symptoms of depression.
  45. Children with ADD/ADHD are often prescribed this type of drug because they don't have enough dopamine in their brain.
  46. What happens in the brain that causes Alzheimers?
    The neurons become insulin resistant and are unable to fire. This is becoming known as Diabetes III.
  47. Opiates block this type of receptor.
  48. Caffeine blocks these receptors and may cause your to stay awake.
  49. Alcohol is this type of drug. It inhibits brain functions that control motor functions, speech, hearing, and thinking.
  50. What system produces Oxytocin during the birthing process to stimulate contractions.
  51. What do the adrenal glands produce?
    Adrenalin or Epenephrine
  52. A person is having problems forming long term memories. What part of the brain is most likely damaged?
  53. Doctors used to sever this structure as a treatment for epilepsy.
    Corpus Collusom
  54. Name the seven senses
    Sight, Touch, Smell, Hearing, Taste, Vestibular, and Propreoceptive.
  55. What is Vestibular sense?
  56. What is Propreoceptive sense?
    mind-body awareness
  57. The flavor of food is a combination of these two senses.
    Taste and Smell
  58. Botox injections paralyze the muscles of the face by blocking this neurotransmitter.
    Acetylcholine (ACH)
  59. When you enter a bright room, this part of the eye contracts.
  60. When we read what part of the eye do we rely on the most?
  61. What is the snail-like structure in the inner ear tha tis filled with fluid?
  62. This specially designed room has misleading visual depth cues that distort ouf perception of a person's size, making them appear small at one end of the room and giant at the other end.
    Ames Room
  63. This theory of color vision holds that the eye contains three kinds of color receptors.
  64. This theory of color vision maintains that receptors are specialized to respond to eith member of three basic color pairs: Red/Green, Yellow/Blue, and Black/White
    Opponent Process
  65. The largest sense organ.
  66. This threshhold is the least amount of energy needed to generate any sensation at all in a person 50 percent of the time.
    Absolute Threshold
  67. We may fail to see something when it is camoflaged because this type of contrast is destroyed.
    Figure Ground Contrast
  68. When we look at optical illusions, or brains often misread visual cues called...
    Perceptual Consistancies.
  69. A type of study where the researcher uses multiple methods of inquiry on only one or two test subjects. Commonly used with victims of brain trauma.
    Case Study
  70. An educated guess.
  71. Austrian neurologist that deveoloped a theory of personality and a psychosexual stage theory.
    Sigmund Freud
  72. A sophisticated statistical technique using data from several different studies to combine and compare results and findings.
  73. A student of Wilhelm Wundt, this researcher wanted to break experiences and perception into their smallest components. This school of thought was known as Structuralism.
    Edward B Titchener
  74. Something that you give to increase the likelihood of a behavior occuring again.
  75. A research method used to establish cause and effect relationships.
    Quasi experimental
  76. This American psychologist established the first psychology lab in the US at Johns Hopkins University.
    J Stanley Hall
  77. A German physiologist, he set up the first psychology lab. He used introspection to research sensation and perceptions.
    Wilhelm Wundt
  78. True or False - In addition to being approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) in which you have to prove that deception is the only way to get at the information, you also have to get informed consent, let participants know of any potential harmful consequences, and debrief subjects after it is used.
  79. True or False - Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
  80. A research method lasting 1 to 20 years.
  81. A type of study where the researcher is interested in whether two or more variables are related.
  82. This American researcher based his ideas on the work of evolutionist Charles Darwin. He said that by breaking the experience into its simplest components, you would lose the experience. His school of thought is known as Functionalism
    William James
  83. A common disorder with mental and physical symptoms suffered by many women in the late 1800's and early 1900's, it was typically treated by a medical doctor manually stimulating the woman to orgasm
  84. When you introduce your opinions and beliefs into research the validity and reliability of your study may be effected by this.
  85. This researcher was considered the father of behaviorism and thought that infants were Tabula Rasa or Blank Slates.
    John Watson
  86. True or False - Much of psychology is based on common sense.
  87. True or False - We know much more about the mind and behavior than we did 50 years ago.
  88. True or False - Wilhelm Wundt was a physiologist before he was known as a psychologist.
  89. True or False - William James was the founder of Functionalism
  90. True or False - Freud's theory proposed 5 stages of psychosexual development.
  91. True or False - Nature vs Nurture refers behavior and thinking being linked to genetic factors vs environmental factors
  92. True or False - Once behaviors are learned, it is very difficult to change them.
  93. True or False - Survey research and case studies are to commonly used research methods
  94. True or False - Quasi-experimental design uses random assignment of participants.
  95. True or False - Experimental design uses random assignment of participants.
  96. True or False - Psychologist believe we are all the same and that there is no difference between the sexes or ethnic or cultural groups.
  97. True or False - Stanford Prison experiment and Milgram's Obedience to Authority experiments are often used as the basis of modern studies.
  98. True or False - Psychologists are never allowed to use deception.