Bio Ch2

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Bio Ch2
2015-02-01 18:42:42
Bio Ch2
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  1. Prokaryote
    Before nucleus
  2. Eukaryote
    Has a nucleus
  3. Robert Hook
    Who discovered cells in 1655
  4. Who is known as the "Father of Microbiology"
    Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
  5. 3 aspects of cell theory
    1. All organisms are composed of one or more cells, and the life processes of metabolism and heredity occur within these cells.

    2. Cells are the smallest living things, the basic unit of organization of all organisms

    3. Cells arise only by division of a privately existing cell
  6. Diffusion
    the process by which molecules intermingle as a result of random motion
  7. The 4 things that every cell contains
    • 1. DNA
    • 2. Cytoplasm
    • 3. Plasma Membrane
    • 4. Ability to carry out protein synthesis
  8. The order for protein synthesis
  9. Which type of cell DO have ribosomes
  10. Long whiplike structures that allow cells to move around in their environment (rotate it in a screw like fashion). They are found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes
  11. Hair like structures extending from the surface of many bacterial cells. They are used for transferring DNA and provide adhesive properties (allow bacteria to stick to things). Found in prokaryotes
  12. What 3 things do cell walls provide?
    • 1. physical support
    • 2. protection
    • 3. prevent water loss
  13. Peptidoglycan
    A carbohydrate matric cross-linked by polypeptides
  14. Gran Negative
    (red) lack peptidoglycan in cell walls
  15. Gran positive
    (purple) have peptidoglycan. (Human pathogens)
  16. Plasma membranes are found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. T or F
  17. What does plasma membrane do?
    Serves as a barrier between the cell and its environment.

    Selectively allows passage of oxygen, nutrients, and wastes in and out of cell
  18. What is cytoplasm composed of?
    mostly H2O, also enzymes and other organic molecules
  19. Cytoplasm is
    a gel like substance that fills the inside of the cell
  20. what 2 things are found in prokaryotes exclusively?
    • Nucleoid
    • plasmids (rarely found in eukaryotes)
  21. Plasmids
    DNA molecule that is separate from the chromosomal DNA.
  22. Organelles
    A membrane based structure that allows for biochemical process to proceed spontaneously and independently within the cell
  23. Nucleus
    Spherically shaped organelles typically located in the center of the cell.

    Residence of genetic information (chromosomes) that allow for the synthesis of proteins.
  24. Nuclear Envelope
    - Has double lipid bilayers (outer and inner membranes)

    - Nuclear pores occur when the 2 membranes pinch together with proteins arranged in a circle
  25. Endoplasmic Reticulum
    Composed of a phospholipid bilayer (like cell membrane) embedded with proteins

    Weaves around in sheets within the cell creating channels within its folds
  26. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
    Where proteins are synthesized and transported out of the cell or embedded into the plasma membrane

    Embedded with ribosomes
  27. Ribosomes
    organelles with two compartments (small subunit and large sub unit) that carry out protein synthesis
  28. Where are ribosomes created?
    In the nucleolis
  29. What the ribosome sub units are made of
    Ribosomal RNA (RRNA)
  30. What carries the information from the DNA to the ribosomes
    Messenger RNA (MRNA)
  31. What carries the amino acids to the ribosome
    Transfer RNA (TRNA)
  32. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
    Has embedded enzymes that synthesize carbohydrates and lipids.

    Regulates calcium ion concentration in muscle cells.

    Detoxifies foreign substances
  33. Golgi Body
    Takes care of the packaging and distribution of molecules that are synthesized at one location and used at another
  34. What are the 3 domains of life?
    Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya
  35. Proteins and lipids are modified into ____ in the golgi body
    glyco-proteins, glyco-lipids,
  36. The life of mRNA,
    • Pre-mRNA
    • Spliced
    • gets the G-Methyl cap and the poly-A tail
    • Leaves the nucleus for a ribosome in the cytoplasm
    • Gets translated into a protein