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Who discovered cells in 1655
Who is known as the "Father of Microbiology"
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
3 aspects of cell theory
1. All organisms are composed of one or more cells, and the life processes of metabolism and heredity occur within these cells.
2. Cells are the smallest living things, the basic unit of organization of all organisms
3. Cells arise only by division of a privately existing cell
the process by which molecules intermingle as a result of random motion
The 4 things that every cell contains
- 1. DNA
- 2. Cytoplasm
- 3. Plasma Membrane
- 4. Ability to carry out protein synthesis
The order for protein synthesis
Which type of cell DO have ribosomes
Long whiplike structures that allow cells to move around in their environment (rotate it in a screw like fashion). They are found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes
Hair like structures extending from the surface of many bacterial cells. They are used for transferring DNA and provide adhesive properties (allow bacteria to stick to things). Found in prokaryotes
What 3 things do cell walls provide?
- 1. physical support
- 2. protection
- 3. prevent water loss
A carbohydrate matric cross-linked by polypeptides
(red) lack peptidoglycan in cell walls
(purple) have peptidoglycan. (Human pathogens)
Plasma membranes are found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. T or F
What does plasma membrane do?
Serves as a barrier between the cell and its environment.
Selectively allows passage of oxygen, nutrients, and wastes in and out of cell
What is cytoplasm composed of?
mostly H2O, also enzymes and other organic molecules
a gel like substance that fills the inside of the cell
what 2 things are found in prokaryotes exclusively?
- plasmids (rarely found in eukaryotes)
DNA molecule that is separate from the chromosomal DNA.
A membrane based structure that allows for biochemical process to proceed spontaneously and independently within the cell
Spherically shaped organelles typically located in the center of the cell.
Residence of genetic information (chromosomes) that allow for the synthesis of proteins.
- Has double lipid bilayers (outer and inner membranes)
- Nuclear pores occur when the 2 membranes pinch together with proteins arranged in a circle
Composed of a phospholipid bilayer (like cell membrane) embedded with proteins
Weaves around in sheets within the cell creating channels within its folds
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Where proteins are synthesized and transported out of the cell or embedded into the plasma membrane
Embedded with ribosomes
organelles with two compartments (small subunit and large sub unit) that carry out protein synthesis
Where are ribosomes created?
In the nucleolis
What the ribosome sub units are made of
Ribosomal RNA (RRNA)
What carries the information from the DNA to the ribosomes
Messenger RNA (MRNA)
What carries the amino acids to the ribosome
Transfer RNA (TRNA)
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Has embedded enzymes that synthesize carbohydrates and lipids.
Regulates calcium ion concentration in muscle cells.
Detoxifies foreign substances
Takes care of the packaging and distribution of molecules that are synthesized at one location and used at another
What are the 3 domains of life?
Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya
Proteins and lipids are modified into ____ in the golgi body
The life of mRNA,
- gets the G-Methyl cap and the poly-A tail
- Leaves the nucleus for a ribosome in the cytoplasm
- Gets translated into a protein