Checks differences between means of 3 or more groups
What is the use of a t-test?
Checks differences between means of 2 groups
Electron microscope identifies this glomerular disorder.
IgA nephropathy/Berger disease
EM- mesangial immune complex deposits
Describe the presentation of IgA nephropathy.
Patient presents with painless hematuria (cola colored) DAYS after upper respiratory tract infection
(vs APSGN which occurs WEEKS after)
Associated with gastroenteritis.
IF- IgA deposits in mesangium
What causes a Volvulus?
Failure of the midgut to rotate counterclockwise as it returns to the abdominal cavity.
Twisting of a bowel around its mesentery; can lead to obstruction and infarction.
The image below is characteristic of which disorder?
Iron deficiency anemia
Spoon nails/ koilonycha
Describe the type of anemia in Iron deficiency anemia.
What is the tensilon test?
Tensilon/ Edrophonium test
Anticholinesterase = ↑Ach
Improves muscle activity in Myasthenia gravis ppts
What is type II hypersensitivity disorder?
IgG, IgM antibodies bind to cell surface antigens → destruction
What type of hypersensitivity is Myasthenia gravis?
Type II (antibody mediated)
Describe the pathophysiology of Goodpasture's disease?
Autoantibodies against alpha-3 type IV collagen
Anti-basement membrane antibodies
What causes cystic fibrosis?
3 base pair deletion ofPhenylalanine in the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene at aino acid position 508.This mutation impairs posttranslational processing of CFTR, resulting in the shunting of CFTR toward the proteasome for degradation.
What can precipitate a Wenicke encephalopathy?
Giving IV dextrose without prior thiamine.
What does the arrow below point to?
What causes coal worker's pneumoconiosis?
Prolonged coal dust exposure → macrophages phagocytize dust particles (<2μm) → release cytokines which induce injury and inflammation
Growth factors stimulate fibroblasts to proliferate and produce collagen (fibrosis)
Describe the cause and presentation of the pathology below.
Apple peel atresia/ Jejunal, ileal, colonic atresia
Due to vascular accident -> Ischemia/obliteration of segment of bowel
Presents with bilious vomiting (greenish-yellowish) after first 24 hrs of life
Absence of large segment of small bowel
Blind ending proximal jejunum
Ileum winds/ spiral around vessel
What causes pagets disease of the bone?
Excessive osteoclastic resorption
Which factors play an important role in osteoclastic differentiation?
M-CSF - Macrophage colony-stimulating factor
RANKL- Receptor for activated nuclear factor kappa beta- ligand