AP2 Test 1 Part 2

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AP2 Test 1 Part 2
2015-01-26 13:49:39
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  1. what causes type 1 diabetes?
    • the cells that produce insulin die
    • attack immune system
  2. at the onset of type 2 diabetes insulin levels are ________.
  3. an excess of which hormone causes acromegaly?
    growth hormone
  4. what causes endemic goiter?
    • lack of iodine in diet 
    • frequent in Arkansas back in day due to corn diet
  5. what are the three types of blood proteins and where are they made?
    • albmins (liver) - small 
    • fibrinogen (liver) - clotting
    • globulins (white blood cells) - gama
  6. what are the three formed elements in the blood?
    • red blood cells
    • white blood cells
    • platelets
  7. what are the three types of granulocytes?
    • neutrophils
    • eosinophils
    • basophils
  8. what are the two agranulcytes?
    • monocytes 
    • lymphocytes
  9. where are the formed elements made?
    bone marrow
  10. what causes the production of each formed element?
    • red blood cell- erythropoietin (kidney)
    • platelet- thrombopoietin (kidney/liver)
    • white blood cells- colony stimulating factors (other white blood cells)
  11. the molecule in the red blood cell that carriers oxygen is ______.
  12. what part of hemoglobin binds the oxygen?
    iron ion
  13. how are red blood cells different from other cells?
    • no nucleus
    • no mitochondria
  14. what gases do red blood cells normally transport?
    • oxygen (to cells)
    • carbon dioxide (away from cells)
  15. how long do red blood cells live?
    120 days
  16. what happens to old red blood cells?
    they are broken down in the spleen
  17. how is hemoglobin disposed of?
    • the globin proteins are broken into amino acids
    • the iron is removed and stored
    • the heme molecule is converted to bilirubin
  18. when is more bilirubin is produced than the liver can handle, it builds up in the blood. this produces _______.
  19. what are the three steps to produce a blood clot?
    • vascular spasm
    • platelet plug
    • coagulation