Ocean Ch 1

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Ocean Ch 1
2015-01-26 13:51:10
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  1. System
    an interactive set of components that behave in an orderly way according to the laws of nature
  2. Earth System
    is divided into 4(5) subsystems. Hydrosphere, Cryosphere Geosphere, Atmosphere, and Biosphere.
  3. Hydrosphere
  4. Cryosphere
    Ice and frozen ground
  5. Geosphere
  6. Atmosphere
    Gas, liquid and solids
  7. Biosphere
    Plants and Organisms
  8. Biogeochemical Cycle is...
    The "pathways" along which energy is transferred between earth's subsystems
  9. The Biogeochemical cycle includes what 5 Cycles?
    Hydrologic, Rock, Carbon, Oxygen, and Nitrogen Cycles.
  10. Earths System is...
    a closed system
  11. What 2 laws apply to the biogeochemical cycle?
    The Law of Conservation of Matter & The Law of Energy Conservation (First law of thermo dynamics)
  12. The Ocean makes up what percent of the hydrosphere?
  13. Glaciers and sea ice make up what percent of the hydrosphere?
  14. Ground water makes up what percent of the hydrosphere?
  15. Streams, soil moisture, vegitation and organisms, and atmosphere make up what percent of the hydrosphere?
  16. Name 2 origins of water on earth.
    Asteroids, and Volcanic Out-Gassing.
  17. List the evolution of Earth.
  18. Big Bang; Plantes and Sun forming from a nebular cloud 5 BYA; Oceans and atmosphere formed from out-gassing, volcanic eruptions at the surface and meteorites impact.
  19. Global water budget is...
    The balance of water transfer between the different matone and continental "Reserviors"
  20. Evaporation
    Liquid to gas
  21. Sublimation
    Solid to vapor
  22. Transpiration
    water released into the atmosphere by plants.
  23. Condensation
    From vapor to liquid
  24. Depostion
    Vapor to solid
  25. Precipitation
    liquid or frozen form falling from clouds.
  26. Distillation
    Purification (pollutants and salts) or water through phase change. Evaporation and freezing
  27. Cryosphere...
    the frozen portion of the hydrosphere including glaciers, icebergs, ice sheets, and permafrost. (makes up 2.1% of the water on the planet.)
  28. Glaciers currently cover about what % of the planet?
  29. Glaciers and permafrost are the largest reservior of what?
    Fresh water on the planet.
  30. The Earths atmosphere is made up of....
    A thin layer of gas that protects the planet from "space".
  31. The troposphere is where the...
    Atmosphere interfaces with the biosphere, geosphere, and hydrosphere.
  32. The stratosphere contains...?
    the ozone shield.
  33. The atmosphere is made up mostly of...
    1.) Nitrogen 2.) Oxygen 3.)Water vapor 4.)Argon 5.)Carbon Dixide 6.) Aerosols
  34. The geosphere is the...
    Sold portion of the earth containing rocks, solids, minerals and sediment.
  35. Most direct data is taken from the...
    crust, which is the very thinnest surface layer.
  36. Earths internal process
    Convection of heat from the core to the surface; Radio decay of minerals; Volcanic activity; Crust deformation; Plate tectonics
  37. Earth's external process occurred through the...
    interaction of rock material with the biosphere, atmosphere and hydrosphere.
  38. The external process is where the rock material is...
    weathered and eroded and mixed with organic detritus to produce soils and transported and deposited to produce sediments.
  39. What type of weathering produces components that make up sea salts and marine sediments?
    The chemical and mechanical weathering process.
  40. The Rock Cycle is a critical...
    biogeochemical cycle important in the transfer of energy between the subsystems of the earth system.
  41. Earth's internal and external processes work together to form...
    igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks.
  42. The Biosphere includes...
    All living organisms, plants and animals. Dominated by single-cell organisms such as bacteria and algae. Large multi-cell mammal such as homo sapiens are relatively rare.
  43. Photosynthesis...
    Plants absorb light energy from the sun, an combined with carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere, and water, produce carbohydrate sugars to be used as energy. Oxygen is released to water and the atmosphere as an important byproduct of photosynthesis.
  44. Cellular resporation is when animals...
    Consume plant food and convert it to carbon dioxide, heat and water to energy for growth and reproduction. This energy is translated through the food chain and food webs which in turn are the foundation of ecosystems.
  45. Chemosynthesis is...
    the process by which organisms living below the photic zone (where no light penetrates) that these organisms generate energy.
  46. The Ecosystem is a...
    community of plants and animals that interact with both other organisms, and physical and chemical conditions found in a specific geographic region.
  47. food chain is a series of...
    Trophic levels (feeding levels) within a specific ecosystem.
  48. Biomass is the measurement of...
    amount of energy at a given tropic level (total weight or mass of organisms)
  49. A Food Web is a...
    Non-Linear food chain. More complex
  50. The Carbon Cycle is the...
    complex transfer of carbon through the subsystems of the Earth System.
  51. In Situ Measurments...
    the sensor is emerged in the medium includes ship based, instrument buoys, floats and gliders, submersibles, autonomous platforms and vehicles, undersea observations.
  52. Profile floaters are...
    Instruments designed to measure the vertical profile of temperature and salinity as well as current direction.
  53. CTD instraments are used to measure...
    Conductivity (can calculate seawater salinity and infer depth), temperature, and depth
  54. Data from satellites orbiting Earth can provide information on...
    measuring wavelength of electromagnetic energy that is absorbed, refracted, and radiated by the land, ocean, and atmosphere.
  55. Geostationary Satellites...
    revolve around the earths equator at the same rate and directions as the earth.
  56. Polar Orbiting Satellites are...
    lower altitude satellites the pass near the poles. As the planet revolves on its axis the satellite is "Fixed" and records data from "successive strips"
  57. Direct Data
    in situ monitoring
  58. Indirect data
    remotely sensed data.
  59. the Hydrosphere includes water in...
    all 3 phases, vapor; liquid; and solid.