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what are lymph nodes?
- little organs that serve as in-line filters for the lymph that is returning to the blood stream. they are full of lymphocytes.
- they usually occur in groups in specific parts of the body
what is the spleen?
- a large organ in the left upper abdomen, full of blood, macrophages, and lymphocytes
- has two areas:
- one for clearing the blood of infection
- the other is for trapping and breaking down old red blood cells.
what is the thymus gland?
- a gland in the upper chest-large in children, small in adults
- produces hormones that stimulate the growth of the other lymphatic tissues
- that screen T lympocytes for immunocompetence
- educates T-lympocytes
what is immunocompetence?
- the ability of a lympocytes to:
- recognize foreign antigens and attack them
- ability to recognize self antigen and not attack them
what is an antigen?
- any part of a cell or molecule that can be recognized by a cell of the immune system or by an antibody
- most of these are cell markers-reason they are made for recognition
- some are molecules that have other function but still trigger an immune response
what are the components of the second line of defense?
neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, macrophages, dendritic cells, natural killer cells (type of lymphocyte), complement proteins, mast cells (basophils but outside blood stream), fever, inflammation
what are the components of the first line of defense?
skin, mucus membranes, mucus, lactic acid in sweat, lysozyme in sweat, tears and saliva, stomach acid, cilia in the respiratory tract, acid in urine
how do the first two lines of define differ from the third?
- first and second lines attach anything foreign (non specific)
- third line forms weapons against one specific foreign invader (can form millions of different weapons, each one recognize one specific antigen)
immune cells that engulf (eat) and destroy foreign antigens within the cell are called _______.
some of these cells can save the antigen and display it on their surface. these are called ________.
antigen presenting cells (APCs)
what is the role of a dendritic cells?
- cells live in skin where they are our early warning system for things that penetrate the skin
- actually macrophages
- release chemicals on invasion that bring other the immune cells to the scene
- can directly kills bacteria themselves
- can migrate to the nearest lymph node and present the bacterial antigen to a lymphocyte to start an even bigger immune response
what are the first immune cells to answer the alarm of a dendritic cell?
neutrophils are the first responders, they immediately begin to kill bacteria
the neutrophils way of killing bacteria is so powerful that it kills the neutrophil too. if a big enough battle occurs, there will be a liquefied area of dead bacteria, dead neutrophils and dead tissue cells. this liquid is called ______.
in response to invasion, mast cells and basophils release chemicals of inflammation. one of these histamine. what does it do?
- it dilates blood vessels in the area
- causes larger gaps in the vessel lining
- this slows blood flow and allows immune cells to get out of the bloodstream and into the affected tissue
the release of chemicals, killing of bacteria, the effect of histamine cause the inflammatory response. what are its four cardinal signs?