Ocean Ch 2

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  1. Igneous Rock...
    cooling and crystallizing of hot molten magma produce igneous rocks.
  2. Sedimentary Rocks...
    Composed of one or more compacted and cemented fragments of rock and mineral grains, partially decomposed remains of dead plants and animals, and minerals participated form solution.
  3. Metamorphic Rock...
    Derived from other rocks, and metamorphosed when exposed to high pressure, intense heat and chemically active fluids.
  4. Continental Crust...
    is mostly granite, a coarse grained rock rich in minerals containing silica and aluminum.
  5. Oceanic Crust...
    is mostly basal, a fine grained rock rich in minerals containing iron and magnesium.
  6. Asthenosphere...
    a deformable portion of the upper mantle. it exhibits a plastic like behavior, it deforms in response to stress.
  7. Lithosphere...
    the outer ridge part of the earth, consisting of upper part of mantle.
  8. Rock Cycle...
    Surface and internal geological processes transform rock from one type to another.
  9. Active Continental Margin
    has a deep trench.
  10. Passive continental margin
    Has no trench.
  11. Continental Shelf
    initial sloping zone, nearly flat
  12. Continental Slope
    more steeply sloping zone.
  13. Continental rise
    Third transitional region, starts to flatten out.
  14. continental margin consist of
    the shelf, slope and rise.
  15. Abyssal Pains
    formed by sediment that spreads over the ocean floor causing it to be flat
  16. submarine Canyons...
    slice into the continental slope and some run onto the continental shelf
  17. Turbidity currents
    Gravity driven flow of water heavily laden with suspended sediment making it denser than normal seawater.
  18. Submarine Fans...
    A cone shaped sedimentary deposit that accumulates on the continental slope and rise.
  19. Ocean basin encompasses...
    the remaining portion of the ocean area. they have varied topography featuring deep trenches, seamounts and submarine mountain ranges.
  20. Plate tectonics is a unifying concept that...
    Combines continental drift plus sea floor spreading to describe the generation, movement, and destruction of earth s lithoshpere and formation of ocean basins.
  21. Continental drift...
    Hypotheses that continents move over the surface of the planet.
  22. divergent plate boundary...
    divergent lithospheric plates produce riffs (fractures) in the crust through which magma wells up from below
  23. Convergent plate Boundary...
    When adjacent plates move toward one another. 3 Possibilities 1. two oceanic plates collide, 2. an oceanic plate and continental plate collide and 3. two continental plates collide.
  24. A subduction zone...
    forms when two oceanic converge or where an ocean and continental converge. the denser oceanic plates slips under the other plate and descends into the mantle.
  25. Island Arc...
    Oceanic to oceanic collision involve volcanic activity
  26. An Ocean Trench...
    is relatively narrow, convergent oceanic with continent or divergent.
  27. Transform plate boundary...
    adjacent plates that slide laterally past one another
  28. Seamount are...
    underwater volcanic peaks formed by significant volcanic eruptions, usually persisting a long time.
  29. Guyot is a...
    Deep water seamount that has been eroded into a flat top.
  30. Coral atoll...
    ring shaped island surrounding a seawater lagoon
  31. hydrothermal vents...
    near a divergent boundary, superheated water circulates through rock fractures in the sea floor discharged through these vents.
  32. Black Smokers...
    Substances such as sulfur, iron, and other metals precipitate out of solution as hot oxygen deprived water mixes with the surrounding cold seawater, these can appear as dark clouds and accumulate in the form of chimneys.
  33. Chemosynthesis...
    organisms oxidize sulfur compounds from hot vent waters and thereby derive energy.
  34. Wilson cycle...
    cycles of ocean basin spreading closing operation over hundreds of millions of years.
  35. The Hess Hypothesis...
    Seafloor moves away from the mid-ocean ridge crests and to the trenches as a result of mantle convection.
  36. Arc-Trench Gap...
    is an indication of steepness of the subduction zone.
  37. Magnetism reversal can be seen at the...
    mid ocean ridges mainly.
  38. Manetic reversals help predict..
    the age of the ocean floor
  39. Alfred Wegner's evidence for continental drift is..
    continental jigsaw, fossil correlation, ancient climates.
  40. Harry Hess hypothesis for seafloor spreading...
    seafloor mixes away from the mid ocean ridge crest and to the techs as a result of mantel convection.
  41. Hess seafloor spreading evidence..
    mid ocean ridge associated with; High heat flow, basalt eruptions, younger rocks, thob or little pelagic sediment (marine derived sediment)

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Ocean Ch 2
2015-01-26 19:34:19
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