Organization of a cell & biochemical concepts study guide
Phospholipids are ______ molecules
*means they have a polar and non-polar end to interact with all types of things.
What does the phosphate end of the plasma membrane allow it to do? (2)
-it allows it to become polar
-allows it to interact inside & outside the cell
What does the lipid end of the plasma membrane do? (2)
-it gives it non-polar side
-the end moves away from the water to the center of the bilayer
Purpose of plasma membrane? (3)
-contain the contents of the cell
-protect the cell from its environment
-regulate movement of substances in & out of the cell
What type of items can move across the plasma membrane through basic diffusion?
Small items like O2 & CO2
*these can move freely through the membrane
What power small items to go through the membrane during basic diffusion>
Simple concentration gradient
*flow from high to low concentration
Does basic diffusion require energy?
No it doesnt
What is facilitated diffusion?
Larger substances require protein transporters to cross membrane
Is energy required for facilitated diffusion?>
No energy required
*powered simple concentration gradient
DOes active transport require energy?
Yes, it requires ATP to power items against their concentration gradient
What's one collateral thing Active transport does?
It creates concentration gradients
*K/na ATPase sets up for symport of glucose and NA
What's difference between how our bodies burn food and how it is burnt when we cook it?
When we burn any organic substance, substances releases H20, CO2, & heat. The difference is, in the body we capture 40% of the heat energy as substrates that we can use to make ATP
*when we burn food on the outside the heat is lost
How does coupling reactions make impossible reaction possible?
Nature favors reactions that release potential energy & not reactions that expend energy so you couple a reaction that is not favorable with one that is making sure that the end outcome is still releasing potential energy
-cell power plant
-produces most of the energy used by cells
Which organelle is the brain of the cell?
Which organelle, other than mitochondria, does it contain DNA
What do molecules of DNA in nucleus provide?
Coded instructions for PRO synthesis
what occurs in rough ER?
What does the rough ER contain?
What is the smooth ER involved in?
Which organelle assembles proteins?
Which organelle is the membranous sacs that process & package proteins after they leave the rough ER?
What is the Golgi apparatus nicknames?
Post office of the cell
What is the nickname of the lysosome?
2 functions of lysosomes?
-removes & recycles waste products
-contains enzymes that break up PRO, fats, nucleic acids