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Statistics
Science of collecting, Organizing, analyzing, and interpreting data in order to make conclusions.

Data
 Information that is collected
 i.e. measurements, counts, responses, and observations

Population vs Sample
All vs Some; sample is a subset of population

Parameter
numerical description of a population characteristic

Statistic
numerical description of a sample characteristic

Descriptive statistics
summarizes and diplays the findings

Inferential Statistics
conclusions based on descriptive statistics

Qualitative
labels, names, qualities, attributes

Quantitative
numerical measures and counts

nominal
Qualitative data; includes names, attributes, etc. No meaningful calculations can be made

ordinal
Qualitative or Quantitative; can order or rank data; no meaningful calculations can be made

interval
Quantitative data; zero is not an inherent zero, only a position on a scale. Meaningful differences can be found.

ratio
Quantitative data; zero is an inherent zero; values below zero wouldn't make sense to discuss. Meaningful ratios and/or differences can be found.

Survey
collecting responses

observation
observe; do not change any existing conditions

experiment
conditions are changed in some way, or treatment is applied.

blinding experiment
those a part of the study don't know what group they are in.

Double Blind
individuals don't know what group they are in, and experimenter doesn't know either. (however, someone does have to know)

simulation
used when it is too dangerous, costly, or impossible t use a different method.

Random
no rules, just randomly pick a sample.

systematic
pick every nth individual/object to create sample

convenience
out of convenience, o to one location and collect information to use as sample

cluster
pick one or more subgroup, but not all and collect all info from the subgroup(s) to create the sample.

stratified
collect some info from all subgroups in order to create a sample.

