Smallpox is prevented by inoculation of pox material, a rudimentary form of immunization.
Lady Mary Montagu (1717-learned from Turkish woman and brought the practice to England)
Microbe growth in organic material is prevented by boiling in a sealed flask. Observed that microbes come in a pair.
Lazzaro Spallanzani (1765-Padua)
Cowpox vaccination prevents smallpox.
Edward Jenner (1798-England)
Fungus causes disease in silkworms (first pathogens to be demonstrated in animals).
Agostino Bassi de Lodi (1835-Italy)
Chlorine as antiseptic wash for doctor's hands decreases pathogens.
Bacterial spores survive boiling but are killed by cyclic boiling and cooling. attempted Pasteur experiment organic matter was contaminated with endospores; heat resistant.
John Tyndall (1881-Ireland)
Sanitation shows statistical correlation with mortality (Crimean War) .
Florence Nightingale (1855-England)
Microbial fermentation produces lactic acid or alcohol; fermentation caused by yeast. (1857)
-Microbes fail to appear spontaneously, even in the presence of oxygen.
-1st artificial vaccine developed (against anthrax). (1881)
Louis Pasteur (France)
Microbes are defined as a class distinct from animals and plants.
Ernest Haeckel (1866-Germany)
Antisepsis during surgery prevents patient death.
Joseph Lister (1867-England)
-Bacteria are a causative agent of anthrax. (1877)
-1st pure culture of colonies is grown on solid medium. Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (1882)
-Koch's postulates are published, based on anthrax and tuberculosis. (1884)
Robert Koch (Germany)
Gram stain is devised to distinguish bacteria from human cells.
Hans Christian Gram (1884)
Intestinal bacteria include Escherichia coli the future model organism.
Theodor Escherich (1886-Austria)
Bacteria oxidize iron and sulfur (lithotrophy) . ("rock-eating" bacteria)
Sergei Winogradsky (1889-Russia)
Bacteria isolated from root nodules are proposed to fix nitrogen.
Martinus Beijerinck (1889-Netherlands)
The concept of a virus is proposed to explain tobacco mosaic disease.
Dmitri Ivanovsky (Russia) and Martinus Beijerinck (Netherlands) (1892-1899)
Antibiotic chemicals are synthesized and identified (chemotherapy).
Paul Ehrlich (1908-USA)
Viruses are found to be a cause of cancer in chickens.
Peyton Rous (1911-USA)
Bacteriophages are recognized as viruses that infect bacteria.
Frederick Twort (England) and Felix d'Herelle (France) (1917)
The ultracentrifuge is invented and used to measure the size of proteins.
Theodor Svedberg (1924)
Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria are transformed by a genetic material from dead cells.
Frederick Griffith (1928-England)
Penicillin, the first widely successful antibiotic, is made by a fungus. The molecule is isolated in 1941.
Alexander Fleming (Scotland), Howard Florey (Australia), and Ernst Chain (Germany) (1929)
The transmission electron microscope is invented and used to observe cells.
Ernst Ruska and Max Knoll (1933-1945;Germany)
The tricarboxylic acid cycle is discovered.
Hans Krebs (1937-England)
The microbial "kingdom" is subdivided into prokaryotes (Monera) and eukaryotes.
Herbert Copeland (1938-USA)
Archaea identified as a third domain of life, the others being eukaryotes and bacteria.
Carl Woese (1977-USA)
1.Microbes always present in diseased host.
-Absent in healthy.
2. microbe isolated from disease host and grown in pure culture.
-no other microbes present.
3.Introduce pure microbe into healthy host.
-Individual becomes sick.
4. Same microbe re-isolated from now-sick host.