Basic Nervous system Organization

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Author:
fruitpunch
ID:
294005
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Basic Nervous system Organization
Updated:
2015-01-28 21:17:31
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Nervous neurons CNS
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Types of neurons & anatomy, Definitions
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  1. Afferent/Sensory Neurons
    • From tissues/organs ---> CNS
    • (Enter through Dorsal Root)
  2. Efferent Neurons
    • Send information away from the CNS to effector cells like muscles, glands, or other cell types
    • (Exit through the Ventral root)
    • Efferent division is made up for Somatic & autonomic system
  3. Interneurons
    • Lie intirely within the CNS
    • Integrators
  4. Ganglia
    Cluster of neuron cell bodies outside CNS
  5. Nuclei/nucleus
    CLuster if neurin cell bodies in CNS
  6. Tract
    Large, myelinated nerve fibers travelling together in CNS
  7. Nerve
    Group of many fibers together traveling together in PNS
  8. Fiber (two types)
    • Muscle fiber: muscle cell
    • Nerve fiber: axon of neuron
  9. Gray matter
    area of the brain and spinal cord that appears gray in unstained specimens and consists mainly of cell bodies and unmyelinated portions of nerve fibers
  10. White Matter
    Portion of CNS that appears white in unstained specimens and contains primarily myelinated nerve fibers
  11. Meninges
    • A protective membrane that covers the brain & spinal cord. There are 3 types of membraneous coverings:
    • 1. Dura Mater
    • 2. Arachnoid Mater
    • 3.Pia Mater
  12. Dura Mater
    Part of the meninges that is next to the bone
  13. Arachnoid mater
    The middle layer of the meninges, next to the subarachnoid space which is filled with cerebral spinal fluid
  14. Pia Mater
    Next to nervous tissue
  15. Choriod Plexus
    • Specialized epithelial structure made up of ependymal cells
    • Produces CSF up to 3x a day
  16. Cerebral Spinal Fluid
    • Fluid that fills cerebral ventricles and subarachnoid space surrounding brain & spinal cord
    • Most of enters bloodstream through 1 way valces in large veins
    • shock absorbing
    • Conditions:
    • Hydrocephalus: Condition in which there is too much CSF build up in brain
  17. Blood Brain Barrier
    • Group of anatomical barriers & transport systems in brain capillary endothelium that controls the kinds of substances entering the brain extracellular space from blood and their rates of entry
    • Selective filter
    • Formed by astrocyte stimulation of formation of tight junctions between celss that make up walls of capillaries found in CNS
    • Substances which dissolve easily in lipid parts of the PM, enter quickly
    • Morphine, Heroine able to cross
    • Other non-lipid soluble molecules can still enter through membrane transport proteins(e.i. glucose)
  18. Dorsal horns
    Region of gray matter in spinal cord that receives sensory input & connects with motor neurons
  19. Ventral horns
    Ventral gray matter of spinal cord containing cell bodies of motor neurons
  20. Dorsal root ganglion
    Group of sensory neuron cell bodies that have axons projecting to dorsal horn of spinal cord
  21. Ventral root
    1 of 2 groups of efferent fibers that leave ventral side of spinal cord
  22. Spinal Nerves
    Cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, coccygeal
  23. Forebrain
    Cerebral hemispheres, thalamus, hypothalamus, limbic system
  24. Cerebral hemispheres
    • 1. Contain cerebral cortex-->Perception, generation of skilled movements, reasoning, learning, memory
    • 2. Contain subcortical nuclei, including those that participate in coordination of skeletal muscle activity
    • 3. Contain interconnecting fiber pathways
  25. Thalamus
    • 1. Acts as a synaptic relay station for sensory pathways on their way to cerebral cortex
    • 2. Participates in control of skeletal muscle coordination
    • 3) Plays a key role in awareness
  26. Hypothalamus
    • 1) Regulates anterior pituitary gland function
    • 2)Regulates water balance
    • 3) Participation in regulation of autonomic nervous system
    • 4)Regulate eating/drinking....and a lot more
    • *Important for homeostasis*
  27. Limbic System
    • 1) Participates in generation of emotions
    • 2) Learning
  28. Cerebellum
    • Coordinates movements, including those for postive & balance
    • Participates in some forms of learning
  29. Brain Stem
    • 1. Contains all fibers passing between spinal cord, forebrain, cerebellum
    • 2. Contains the reticular formation and its various integrating centers, including those for cardiovascular/respiratory activity
    • 3. Contains nuclei for cranial nerves III-XII
  30. Cerebrum
    Forms forebrain with diencephalon
  31. Diencephalon
    contains the thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus
  32. Cerebral cortex
    • Cellular covering cerebrum of gray matter, inner layer myelinated
    • 3mm, highly folded
    • afferent information collected & processed, nerve fibers enter from diencephalon
    • Frontal, Parietal: contains somatosensory cortex, Occipital:Visual Cortex, Temporal: Auditory cortex
  33. Somatosensory cortex
    Strip of cortex that lies in parietal lobe of brain
  34. Visual Cortex
    • Ascending pathway from eyes to VC
    • In occipital lobe
  35. Auditory cortex
    Ascending from ears, in temporal lobe
  36. Motor areas
    • Supplementary motor cortex,
    • Premotor,
    • Primary motor cortex
  37. Supplementary Motor COrtex
    • Motor area
    • In front of the primary motor cortex, involved in planning & enacting complex muscle movements
  38. Premotor
    • Motor area
    • Region of the cerebral cortex found on lateral sides of the brain
    • Part of planning/enacting complex muscle movements
  39. Primary motor cortex
    • Strip of cerebral cortex
    • Gives rise to many axons descending in corticospinal + multineuronal pathways

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