Sociology 204 #1

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Sociology 204 #1
2015-01-27 01:45:38
sociology sociology204
Exam 1: Chapters 1 through 4 in McGraw Hill textbook
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  1. Agency
    the freedom individuals have to choose and to act
  2. Anomie
    the loss of direct felt in a society when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective
  3. Applied Sociology
    the use of the discipline of sociology with the specific intent of yielding practical applications for human behavior and organizations
  4. Clinical Sociology
    the use of the discipline of sociology with the specific intent of altering organizations or restructuring social institutions
  5. Conflict Perspective
    a sociological approach that assumes that social behavior is best understood in terms of tension between groups over power or the allocation of resources, including housing, money, access to services, and political representation
  6. Functionalist Persepctive
    a sociological approach that emphasizes the way in which the parts of a society are structured to maintain its stability
  7. Globalization
    The worldwide integration of government policies, cultures, social movements, and financial markets through trade and the exchange of ideas
  8. Interactionist Perspective
    a sociological approach that generalizes about everyday forms of social interaction in order to explain society as a whole
  9. Macrosociology
    sociological investigation that concentrates on large-scale phenomena or entire civilizations
  10. Microsociology
    sociological investigation that stresses the study of small groups and the analysis of our everyday experiences and interactions
  11. Natural Science
    the study of the physical features of nature and the ways in which they interact and change
  12. Personal Sociology
    the process of recognizing the impact our individual position has on who we are and how we think and act, and of taking responsibility for the impacts our actions have on others
  13. Private Troubles
    problems we face in our immediate relationships with particular individuals in our personal lives
  14. Public Issues
    problems we face as a consequence of the positions we occupy within the larger social structure
  15. Science
    the body of knowledge obtained by methods based on systematic observation
  16. Social Inequality
    a condition in which members of society have differing amounts of wealth, prestige, or power
  17. Social Science
    the study of the social features of humans and the ways in which they interact and change
  18. Sociological Imagination
    our recognition of the interdependent relationship between who we are as individuals and the social forces that shape our lives
  19. Sociology
    the systematic study of the relationship between the individual and society and of the consequences of difference
  20. Theory
    in sociology a set of statements that seeks to explain problems, actions, or behavior
  21. Casual Logic
    a relationship exists between variables in which change in one brings about change in the other
  22. Code of Ethics
    the standards of acceptable behavior developed by and for members of a profession
  23. Content Analysis
    the systematic coding and objective recording of data, guided by some rationale
  24. Control Group
    the subjects in an experiment who are not introduced to the independent variable by the researcher
  25. Control Variable
    a factor that is held constant to test the relative impact of an independent variable
  26. Correlation
    a relationship between two variables in which a charge in one coincides with a change in the other
  27. Dependent Variable
    the variable in a casual relationship that is subject to the influence of another variable
  28. Ethnography
    the study of an entire social setting through extended systematic observation
  29. Experiment
    an artificially created situation that allows a researcher to manipulate variables
  30. Experimental Group
    the subjects in an experiment who are exposed to an independent variable introduced by a researcher
  31. Hawthorne Effect
    the unintended influence that observers of experiments can have on their subjects
  32. Hypothesis
    a testable statement about the relationship between two or more variables
  33. Independent Variable
    the variable in a casual relationship that causes of influences a change in a second variable
  34. Interview
    a face-to-face or telephone questioning of a respondent to obtain desired information
  35. Mean
    a number calculated by adding a series of values and then dividing by the number of values
  36. Median
    the midpoint
  37. Mode
    the single most common value in a series of scores
  38. Observation
    a research technique in which an investigator collects information through direct participation and/or by closely watching a group or community
  39. Operational Definition
    transformation of an abstract concept into indicators that are observable and measurable
  40. Qualitative Research
    research that relies on what is seen in field or naturalistic settings more than on statistical data
  41. Quantitative Research
    research that collects and reports data primarily in numerical form
  42. Questionnaire
    a printed, written, or computerized form used to obtain information from a respondent
  43. Random Sample
    a sample for which every member of an entire population has the same change of being selected
  44. Reliability
    the extent to which a measure produces consistent results
  45. Research Design
    a detailed plan or method for obtaining data scientifically
  46. Sample
    a selection from a larger population that is statistically representative of that population
  47. Scientific Method
    a systematic, organized series of steps that ensures maximum objectivity and consistency in researching a problem
  48. Secondary Analysis
    a variety of research techniques that make use of previously collect and publicly accessible information and data
  49. Survey
    a study, generally in the form of an interview or questionnaire, that provides researchers with information about how people think and act
  50. Validity
    the degree to which a measure or scale truly reflects the phenomenon under study
  51. Value Neutrality
    Max Weber's term for objectivity of sociologists in the interpretation of data
  52. Variable
    a measurable trait or characteristic that is subject to change under different conditions
  53. Argot
    specialized language used by members of a group or subculture
  54. Cognitive Culture
    our mental and symbolic representations of reality
  55. Counterculture
    a subculture that deliberately opposes certain aspects of the larger culture
  56. Cultural Relativism
    the viewing of people's behavior for the perspective of their own culture
  57. Cultural Universal
    a common practice or belief shared by all societies
  58. Culture
    everything humans create in establishing our relationships to nature and with each other
  59. Cultural Lag
    a period of adjustment when the nonmaterial culture is still struggling to adapt to new material conditions
  60. Culture Shock
    the feelings of disorientation, uncertainty, and even fear that people experience when they encounter unfamiliar cultural practices
  61. Diffusion
    the process by which cultural item spreads from group to group or society to society
  62. Discovery
    the process of making known or sharing the existence of an aspect of reality
  63. Dominant Ideology
    a set of cultural beliefs and practices that legitimates existing powerful social, economic, and political interests
  64. Ethnocentrism
    the tendency to assume that one's own culture and way of life represent what is normal or are superior to all others
  65. Folkways
    norms governing everyday social behavior, whose violation raises comparatively little concern
  66. Formal Norm
    a norm that generally has been written down and that specifies strict punishments for violators
  67. Informal Norm
    a norm that that is generally understood but not precisely recorded
  68. Innovation
    the process of introducing a new idea or object to a culture through discovery or invention
  69. Invention
    the combination of existing cultural items into a form that did not exist before
  70. Language
    a system of shared symbols; it includes speech, written characters, numerals, symbols, and nonverbal gestures and expressions
  71. Laws
    formal norms enforced by the state
  72. Material Culture
    our physical modification of the natural environment to suit our purposes
  73. Mores
    norms deemed highly necessary to the welfare of a society
  74. Normative Culture
    the ways we establish, abide by, and enforce principles of conduct
  75. Nonverbal Communication
    the use of gestures, facial expressions, and other visual images to communicate
  76. Norm
    an established standard or behavior maintained by a society
  77. Sanction
    a penalty or reward for conduct concerning a social norm
  78. Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
    the idea that the language a person uses shapes his or her perception of reality and therefore his or her thoughts and actions
  79. Society
    the structure of relationships within which culture is created and shared through regularized patterns of social interaction
  80. Sociobiology
    the systematic study of how biology affects human social behavior
  81. Subculture
    a segment of society that shares a distinctive pattern of mores, folkways, and values that differs from the pattern of the larger society
  82. Technology
    a form of culture in which humans modify the natural environment to meet particular wants and needs
  83. Value
    a collective conception of what is considered good, desirable, and proper-or bad, undesirable, and improper - in a culture
  84. Activity Theory
    a theory of aging that suggests that those elderly people who remain active and socially involved will be best adjusted
  85. Ageism
    prejudice and discrimination based on a person's age
  86. Anticipatory Socialization
    processes of socialization in which a person "rehearses" for future positions, occupations, and social relationships
  87. Cognitive Theory of Development
    the theory that children's thought progresses through four stages of development
  88. Degradation Ceremony
    an aspect of the socialization process within some total institutions, in which people are subjected to humiliating rituals
  89. Disengagement Theory
    a theory of aging that suggests that society and the aging individual mutually sever many of their relationships
  90. Dramaturgical Approach
    a view of social interaction which people are seen as actors on a stage attempting to put on a successful performance
  91. Face-work
    the effort people make to maintain a proper image and avoid public embarrassment
  92. Gender Role
    expectations regarding the proper behavior, attitudes, and activities of males and females
  93. Generalized Other
    the attitudes, viewpoints, and expectations of society as a whole that a child takes into account in his or her behavior
  94. Gerontolgy
    the study of the sociological and psychological aspects of aging and the problems of the aged
  95. Hospice Care
    treatment of the terminally ill in their own homes, or in special hospital units or other facilities, with the goal of helping them to die comfortably, without pain
  96. I
    the acting self that exists in relation to the Me
  97. Impression Management
    the altering of the presentation of the self in order to create distinctive appearances and satisfy particular audiences
  98. Life Course Approach
    a research orientation in which sociologists and other social scientists look closely at the social factors that influence people throughout their lives, from birth to death
  99. Looking-glass Self
    a theory that we become who we are based on how we think others see us
  100. Me
    the socialized self that plans actions and judges performances based on the standards we have learned from others
  101. Midlife Crisis
    a stressful period of self-evaluation that begins at about age 40
  102. Resocialization
    the process of discarding former behavior patterns and accepting new ones as part of a transition in one's life
  103. Rite of Passage
    a ritual marking the symbolic transition from one social position to another
  104. Role Taking
    the process of mentally assuming the perspective of another and responding from that imagined viewpoint
  105. Sandwich Generation
    the generation of adults who simultaneously try to meet the competing needs of their parents and their children
  106. Self
    our sense of who we are, distinct from others, and shaped by the unique combination of social interactions
  107. Significant Other
    an individual who is most important in the development of the self, such as a parent, friend, or teacher
  108. Socialization
    the lifelong process through which people learn the attitudes, values, and behaviors appropriate for members of a particular culture
  109. Symbol
    a gesture, object, or word that forms the basis of human communication
  110. Total Institution
    an institution that regulates all aspects of a person's life under a single authority, such as a prison, the military, a mental hospital, or a convent