chapter 1 definitions (micro)

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chapter 1 definitions (micro)
2015-01-27 01:24:26
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  1. A polymer of galactose that is used as a gelling agent.
  2. A molecule that can kill or inhibit the growth of selected microorganisms.
  3. A chemical that kills microbes.
  4. One of the 3 domains of life, consisting of organisms with a last common ancestor not shared with members of Bacteria or Eukarya. Organisms are prokaryotic (lacking nuclei, unlike eukaryotes) and possesses ether-linked phospholipid membranes (unlike bacteria.)
  5. A prokaryotic organism that is a member of the domain Archaea, distinct from bacteria and eukaryotes.
  6. Free of microbes.
  7. A device that uses pressurized steam to sterilize materials by raising the temperature above the boiling point of water at standard pressure.
  8. One of the 3 domains of life, consisting of organisms with a last common ancestor not shared with members of Archaea or Eukarya.
  9. A prokaryotic organism that is a member of the domain Bacteria, distinct from archaea and eukaryotes.
    Bacterium (plural: bacteria)
  10. A community of microbes growing on a solid surface.
  11. The serial passage of a pathogenic organism from an infected individual to an uninfected individual, thus transmitting disease.
    Chain of infection
  12. A theory stating that the products of oxidative metabolism store their energy in an electrochemical gradient that can drive cell processes such as ATP synthesis.
    Chemiosmotic Theory
  13. An organism that oxidizes inorganic compounds to yield energy and reduce carbon dioxide.
    Chemolithotroph (aka. chemoautotroph, lithotroph, chemolithoautotroph)
  14. A visible cluster of microbes on a plate, all derived from a single founding microbe.
  15. A technique to determine the order of bases in a DNA sample.
    DNA sequencing
  16. A microscope that obtains high resolution and magnification by focusing electron beams on samples using magnetic lenses.
    Electron microscope
  17. A series of membrane-embedded proteins that convert the energy of redox reactions into a proton potential.
    Electron transport system (ETS) (aka electron transport chain)
  18. An organism that lives as a symbiont inside another organism.
  19. The use of selective growth media to allow only certain microbes to grow.
    Enrichment culture
  20. One of the 3 domains of life, consisting of organisms with a last common ancestor not shared with members of Archaea or Bacteria.
  21. An organism that grows only in an extreme environment-- that is an environment including one or more conditions that are "extreme" relative to the conditions for human life.
  22. The production of ATP via substrate-level phosphorylation, using organic compounds as both electron donors and electron acceptors, Industrial fermentation is the production of microbial products that are made by microbes grown in fermentation vessels; it may include respiratory metabolism to maximize microbial growth.
    Fermentation (aka fermentative metabolism)
  23. The complete genetic content of an organism. The sequence of all the nucleotides in a haploid set of chromosomes.
  24. The global interconversion of various inorganic and organic forms of elements.
    Geochemical cycling
  25. The theory that many diseases are caused by microbes.
    Germ theory of disease
  26. An organism's cellular defense system against pathogens.
    Immune system
  27. The stimulation of an immune response by deliberate inoculation with a weakened pathogen, in hopes of providing immunity to disease caused by a pathogen.
  28. The sum of genomes of all members of a community of organisms.
  29. An organism or virus too small to be seen with the unaided human eye.
  30. A group of organisms that include an ancestral species and all of its descendants.
    Monophyletic group (aka Clade)
  31. The ability of some prokaryotes to reduce inorganic diatomic nitrogen gas (N2) to 2 molecules of ammonium ion (2NH4+).
    Nitrogen Fixation
  32. A round dish with vertical walls covered by an inverted dish of slightly larger diameter. The smaller dish can be filled with a substrate for growing microbes.
    Petri dish
  33. The metabolic ability to absorb and convert solar energy into chemical energy for biosynthesis. Authotrophic photosynthesis, or photoautotrophy, includes CO2 fixation.
  34. A method to amplify DNA in vitro using many cycles of DNA denaturation, primer annealing, and DNA polymerization with a heat-stable polymerase.
    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
  35. Having multiple evolutionary origins.
  36. An organism whose cell or cells lack a nucleus; include both bacteria and archaea.
  37. A culture containing only a single strain or species of microorganisms. A large number of microorganisms that all descended from a single individual cell.
    Pure culture
  38. A model of early life in which RNA performed all the informational and catalytic roles of today's DNA and proteins.
    RNA world
  39. The theory, much debated in the nineteenth century, that under current Earth conditions life can arise spontaneously from nonliving matter.
    Spontaneous generation
  40. The genetic construction of novel organisms with useful functions.
    Synthetic biology
  41. The internalization of free DNA from the environment into bacterial cells.
  42. A machine that subjects samples to high centrifugal forces and can be used to separate subcellular components.
  43. Exposure of an individual to a weakened version of a microbe or a microbial antigen to provoke immunity and prevent development of disease upon reexposure.
  44. A noncellular particle containing a genome that can replicate only inside a cell.
  45. A column containing a stratified environment that causes specific microbes to grow at particular levels: a type of enrichment culture for the growth of microbes from wetland environments.
    Winogradsky column