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Name the bony boundaries which define the nasal cavity in the dog: rostral, caudal, dorsal, ventral, lateral
- Rostral - incisive
- Caudal - cribiform plate of ethmoid bone
- Dorsal - nasal and frontal
- Ventral - incisive, maxilla, palatine, hard palate
- Lateral - incisive, maxilla and zygomatic
List the bones that contribute to the hard palate from rostral to caudal
Incisive, maxilla, palatine
What structure does the vomer support?
The nasal septum
What is the functional role of the nasal conchae?
Increase the surface area for 'air conditioning' (they direct, slow, clean, warm and moisten air). Also involved in olfaction caudally.
What area of the brain lies immediately behind the cribiform plate of the ethmoid bone?
The olfactory bulbs
What is a paranasal sinus?
An air filled space between plates of bone associated with the nasal cavity
How do sinuses communicate with the nasal cavity?
Via independent openings into the ethmoidal meatuses
Does the dog have a true maxillary sinus?
No - it is more of a recess in carnivores
Give one example of a breed which has each conformation: dolichocephalic, mesaticephalic, brachycephalic
- D - greyhound
- M - labrador
- B - english bulldog
Is the frontal sinus a feature in the skull of the cat?
Yes, just one sinus on each side
How does the septum vary in composition in a rostral to caudal direction?
Rostral is cartilage, medial is membranous and caudal is bony
What name is given to the passageways between the conchae?
What type of epithelium lines most of the structures associated with the nasal cavity and what is the functional significance of this? What is the exception to this and what type of epithelium is found in this location?
- Psuedostratified ciliated columnar epithelium or respiratory epithelium - it cleanses and moistens incoming air
- Ethmoidal conchae - olfactory epithelium
Which important glands are located in the maxillary recess?
The lateral nasal gland secretory cells are located here
What is the functional relevance of the auditory canal?
They equalise pressure in the middle ear
What is the functional relevance of the pharyngeal tonsil?
It is part of the retropharyngeal lymphatic system and is involved in immunosurveillance
What is another name for the common pharynx?
Does the frontal sinus communicate with the maxillary sinus in the bovine skull?
No it directly communicates with the nasal cavity via openings between the ethmoidal conchae
Where does the maxillary sinus communicate with the nasal cavity in the bovine?
What is the functional significance of the rostral bone in the pig?
It strengthens the nose to allow the pig to carry out rooting behaviour
Why is it important to be aware of the pharyngeal diverticulum in pigs?
As you can place a feeding tube in here instead of into the oesophagus
What name is given to the opening which links the dorsal conceal/frontal and caudal maxillary sinuses?
What name is given to the single opening which all of the paranasal sinuses communicate with the nasal cavity in the horse? Where precisely is this opening located in the nasal cavity?
The nasomaxillary opening. It is located in the middle meatus (i.e. between the dorsal and ventral conchae)
Which cheek teeth lie within the rostral maxillary sinus and which lie within the caudal maxillary sinus?
- Rostral - 3rd and 4th upper cheek teeth
- Caudal - 5th and 6th upper cheek teeth
List two ways the horse can vary the amount of oxygen entering the lower passageways during exercise
- Reduced blood flow to nasal mucosa
- Opening of glottis
- Dilation of nostrils
- Weight of abdominal contents assists with expiration
Describe how the nasal sinuses communicate with the nasal cavity in the horse
The frontomaxillary opening communicates with the caudal maxillary sinus which communicates with the nasal cavity via the nasomaxillary opening
Do the rostral and caudal maxillary sinuses communicate with each other?
No, they are separated by a bony septum
How do the rostral and caudal maxillary sinuses communicate with the nasal cavity?
Through the nasomaxillary opening
Precisely where is the nasomaxillary opening located?
In the middle meatus
What name is given to the foramen in the skull through which the infraorbital nerve becomes superficial?
The infraorbital foramen
The laryngeal aditus is held within the nasopharynx in the horse by the caudal pillars of the soft palate (palatopharyngeal arches). What are the consequences of this for the horse?
This means horses are obligate nose breathers
Which important structure passes through the caudal and rostral maxillary sinus compartments?
The infraorbital canal, carrying the infraorbital nerve
Why does the maxillary sinus enlarge with time?
As the teeth are ground down with age reducing the size of the reserve crowns and increasing space within the sinus
Which two sinus compartments communicate via the from maxillary opening?
Dorsofrontal and caudal maxillary sinuses
What function has been assigned to the guttural pouches of the horse?
It may influence carotid artery blood pressure and act as a cerebral blood cooling mechanism