Ocean Ch 3

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Anonymous
ID:
294076
Filename:
Ocean Ch 3
Updated:
2015-01-27 17:30:31
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science
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Oceanography
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  1. Temperature is...
    directly proportional to the average kinetic energy of atoms or molecules composing a substance
  2. Heat...
    Energy transferred between objects
  3. Latent heat...
    When water freezes, latent heat is released into the environment and for ice to melt an equivalent amount of latent heat is absorbed from the environment
  4. Hydrogen Bonding...
    An attractive force whereby a positively charged (hydrogen) pole of a water molecule attracts the negatively charged (Oxygen) pole of another water molecule.
  5. Internal energy...
    encompasses all of the energy in the substance, that is, the kinetic energy of atoms and molecules plus the potential energy arising form forces between atoms or molecules.
  6. Latent heat of fusion...
    Whether freezing or melting is taking place, the latent heat involved is latent heat of fusion.
  7. Evaporation...
    process where water changed phase from liquid to a vapor
  8. Condensation...
    The process of water changes phase from a vapor to a liquid.
  9. Sublimation...
    The process where water changes directly from a solid to a vapor without becoming a liquid first.
  10. Depositon...
    The process where water changed directly form a vapor to a solid (ice crystals) workout becoming a liquid first.
  11. Thermal inertia...
    resistance to a change in tempurature.
  12. Evaporative cooling...
    the cooling a surface such as earth surface experiences as water evaporates absorbing heat and transferring heat to the atmosphere via water vapor. Evaporation of water requires the latent heat of vaporization.
  13. Maritime Climate...
    Characteristics of little or high latitude located downwind from the moderating influences of the ocean or large lake. characterized by minimal contrast with continental climate
  14. Continental climate...
    Characterizes a middle or high latitude locale well inland form the moderating influence of the ocean or large lake; characterized by significant difference between mean summer and winter temps.
  15. Principle of constant proportions
    The major constituents of seawater occur in the same relative concentrations throughout the ocean system.
  16. Bubble injection...
    A mechanism of gas transfer at the air/sea interface whereby breaking waves introduce a foam composed of small bubbles below the surface greatly enhancing exchange rates.
  17. Cellular Respiration...
    The process whereby food is broken down liberating energy for maintenance, growth and reproduction, while releasing carbon dioxide, water and heat energy to the environment.
  18. Photosynthesis...
    the process whereby autotrophs use light energy from the sun combine carbon dioxide from the atmosphere with water to produce sugar, a from of carbohydrate that contains a relatively large amount of energy.
  19. pH Scale...
    The pH increases from 0-14 as the hydrogen ion concentration decreases. Pure water has a pH of 7, which is considered neutral; a pH above 7 is increasingly alkaline whereas a pH below 7 is acidic. The pH scale is logarithmic, each unit increment corresponds to a tenfold change in acidity.
  20. Buffer...
    A substance that causes chemical equilibrium.
  21. Brine rejection...
    Salts are excluded from the ice structure as seawater freezes and the remaining unfrozen water becomes saltier and therefore freezes at a still lower temperature.
  22. Ocean Acidification...
    With the continuing upward trend in the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide, concern is focused on the potential effects on the oceans buffering ability and the viability of certain marine organisms. CO2 that is absorbed by the ocean participates on chemical reactions that increase the acidity (lowers the pH) or ocean waters.
  23. The pacific ocean is the...
    largest of the 5 oceans. Holds 50% of the worlds oceans.
  24. Temperature and salinity is important in controlling...
    ocean circulation.
  25. Hydrogen bonding...
    Controls the behavior of water. It is a slightly polarize intermolecular force.
  26. What is unique about H2O?
    The hydrogen atoms are located around the oxygen atom at a 105 degrees and produce a charge separation that causes the individual water molecule to have a slight polarity.
  27. Heat is measure in...
    Calories, which in turn is defined by the amount of heat energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water. And Joules (1 joule=239 calories)
  28. Sensible heat...
    Heat energy that can be sensed through temperature change.
  29. Because of the hydrogen bond, water has the...
    highest specific heat of any naturally occurring substance and high latent heat. The ability of water to absorb and store heat is important to climate.
  30. Estuaries, where fresh river water meets salty ocean water are examples of...
    Brackish waters.
  31. Where do sea salts come from?
    Erosion of material from land. Outgassing from volcanic and hydrothermal vents. Dissolving and decay of marine organisms after death.
  32. Principle of constant proportions...
    The level of salt in sea water is constant- some is being removed by plants, animals and chemical precipitation to produce "Chemical" sedimentary rocks. This is an important link between the biosphere and the geosphere.
  33. More that 70 chemical elements are dissolved in sea water. However,only 6 of these make up 99% of the modern ocean's sea salts. The 6 most common are:
    chloride; sodium; sulfate; magnesium; calcium; and potassium.
  34. The Orca Basin in a mid-slope basin formed by...
    salt deformation. Dissolution of Jurassic (200-145 mya) produces anoxic brine. 3.6 billion tons of salt dissolving at a rate of .5 million ton/yr. Associated with oil and methane gas seeps, cold seeps-cold vents. Sometimes ringed by mussel colonies. Mussels convert methane to carbon to build tissue (chemosynthesis) and might consume bacteria and decayed "marine snow" to reproduce.
  35. Barite chimneys...
    formed at both hydrothemal vents and cold seeps. Barium metal (Br) is combined with Sulfides (Su) for seawater to produce the chimneys.
  36. Seawater also contains dissolved gases such as...
    Carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and oxygen.
  37. There is no direct relationship between...
    Water temperature and salinity. Because the concentration of salt in the ocean water is controlled by the amount of evaporation the amount of mixing (dilution of ocean water, both vertically and horizontally) and the amount of fresh water being introduced by surface runoff (streams).
  38. Higher salinities are found in...
    warmer waters that are isolated from the open ocean circulation and do not have large fresh water stream entering the basin.
  39. Sea ice...
    As the water freezes salt is excluded from the ice crystals. Brine pockets (1/2mm) are formed when the ice crystallizes as the water continues to freeze the brine "sludge" or "gel" is formed that can be 8X the salinity of the ocean water. As the remaining water freezes the salt will crystallize.
  40. How is density notated?
    Ocean pressure (force per unit usually measured by milibars)
  41. How is water pressure measured (expressed)?
    The relation to water depth and pressure is linear; therefore water pressure can be calculated by depth.

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