Central Nervous System

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Central Nervous System
2015-01-28 01:41:49
CNS central
Anatomy of Brain & Spinal Cord
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  1. A cable like collection of axos in the peripheral nervous system is called a ____.
  2. Which of the following structures are part of the central nervous system?
    Cranial Nerves
    Spinal Nerves
    Spinal Cord
    • Spinal Cord
    • Brain
  3. A collection of neuron cell bodies within the central nervous system is properly referred to as a _____
  4. A collection of neuron cell bodies with the peripheral nervous system is properly refered to as ____.
  5. ______ receptors bind to and respond to norepinephrine or epinephrine.
  6. Hormones secreted by the adrenal medulla:
    Epinephrine & norepinephrine
  7. Norepinephrine and epinephrine are associated with the ______ division of the autonomic nervous system.
  8. The name of a cranial nerve indicates:
    • General area or group of structures innervated
    • Principal function of the nerve
  9. What is the function connection between a neuron and an effector cell called?
  10. The region of the brain below the thalamus, which is also the master command center for neural and endocrine system coordination, is called the ______.
  11. At the _____ _______ for an ion, there is no net movement of the ion because the opposing fluxes are equal and the potential will undergo no further change.
    Equilibrium potential
  12. In afferent neurons, the initial depolarization to threshold is achieved by a graded potential called the ______.
    Receptor Potential
  13. Chemical synapses:
    a) May release more than one transmitter at a time
    b)Transmit the local current resulting from the action potential through gap junctions directly into the next cell
    c)Use neurotransmitters released by the presynaptic cell to transmit signals to the postsynaptic cell
    d)have a synaptic cleft between pre and post synaptic cells
    a, c, d
  14. A drug that binds to a receptor and produces a response similar to what occurs whenthe normal ligand binds is called a ____
  15. A subthreshold stimuli or potential
    • does not generate an action potential
    • raises the local membrane potential briefly it returns to the resting potential
  16. Rest and digest functions are the responsibility of the _______ nervous system.
  17. The sodium-potassium ATPase pump in the cell membrane:
    a)Helps to maintain the resting potential of the cell
    b)Moves potassium ions into the cell and sodium ions out of the cell
    c)Is an electrogenic Pump
    d)Establishes electrical gradient
  18. The basal nuclei are regions of the cerebrum containng neurons
    involved in the control of skeletal muscles
  19. Neurons involved in the control of voluntary movements are located deep within the cerebral hemispheres, in the ______.
    Basal Nuclei
  20. When a receptor responds normally when first exposed to a neurotransmitter but then eventually fails to respond despite the continued presence of the neurotransmiter, this is known as ______.
    Receptor desensitization
  21. A graded potential in a postsynaptic neuron that occurs in response to activation of a synapse and which increases the likelihood that the neuron will reach threshold is called a(n) _______ postsynaptic potential
  22. Which of the following are cholinergic receptors?
    a) nicotinic
    b) muscarinic
    c) androgenic
    d)NMDA receptors
    Nicotinic, muscarinic
  23. Which of the following are true of spatial summation within the nervous system?
    a) Due to divergence of neural pathways
    b) It occcurs when signals from several presynaptic neurons summate within one postsynaptic neuron
    c) It is due to convergence of neural pathways
    B, C
  24. Mass activation of the sympathetic nervous system leads to:
    "fight-or-flight" response
  25. The ______ is a portion of the diencephalon that is a collection of several large nuclei that serve as synaptic relay stations and important integrating centers. It also plays a key role in general arousal.
  26. The toxin muscarine is classified as a(n) _____ because it bind and activates muscarinic Ach receptors.
  27. Glial cells called _____ form the epithelial lining of the brain cavaities (ventricles) and the central canal of the spinal cord, and regulate the production and flow of cerebrospinal fluid.
  28. _____ stimulu are those that are just strong enough to trigger the voltage gated channels of the axon hillock to open and begin the action potential
  29. Temporal summation within the nervous system occurs
    when successive signals arriving from a single presynaptic neuron generates postsynaptic potentials that summate with each other
  30. Which of the following neurotransmitters are inihibitory?
    a)Aspartic acid
    Glycine, GABA
  31. Endogenous opiods:
    • Are releases in response to exposure to a stressor
    • Block the transmission of pain
  32. Divergence occurs in a neural pathways when
    one neuron can make synapses with a number of different neurons
  33. Nitric oxide (NO):
    • Causes an increase in the concentration of the cyclic GMP in recipient cells
    • Acts a neurotransmitter
  34. Dopamine is:
    a Neurotransmitter, a catecholamine, a monoamine
  35. When a neuron pathways is stimulated repeatedly, it leads to improved synaptic transmission and the insertion of AMPA type glutamate receptors at the postsynatpic membrane. This is called
    Long term Potentiation
  36. The type of Ach receptors found in smooth muscle fibers, cardiac muscle and some glands are called ______ Ach receptors
  37. The subtype of Ach receptors that are found on skeletal muscle fibers, autonomic ganglia and specific regions of the brain are called _____ Ach receptors
  38. What type of Ach receptors are located in smooth muscle cells, cardiac muscle cells, and some glandular cells?