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What are the products of pro-opiomelanocortin?
- MSH- Melanocyte stimulating hormone
- Beta-endorphins (opoid peptide- mu, delta, kappa receptors)
What is somatomedin C?
Refered to as insulin-like growth factor which is released in response to growth hormone.
With which maternal blood types does erythroblastosis fetalis and hemolytic disease of the newborn occur?
- Maternal blood types A and B: the antibodies (Anti-A and -B) are of the IgM subtype and cannot cross the placenta.
- In maternal blood type O, the antibodies are primarily IgG and can cross the placenta to cause fetal hemolysis.
- In Rh-, the Anti-D antibodies are of IgG and can cross the placenta to cause hemolysis.
At what week of gestation are neural crest cells present in the rectum?
At what week of gestation are neural crest cells present in the colon?
What genetic mutation is Hirshsprung disease associated with?
- RET gene mutations
- Failure of neural crest cell migration
- Receptor associated Tyrosine kinase
What causes orotic aciduria?
Defect in UMP synthase. Can't convert orotic acid to Uridine monophosphate (UMP)
What is the pathology seen below?
Horse shoe kidney
What causes a horseshoe kidney?
- Results from fusion of the inferior poles of both kidneys.
- As the kidneys ascend from the pelvis during fetal development, horseshoe kidneys get trapped under inferior mesenteric artery.
What does the medullary cord contain?
B cells, plasma cells
What does the medullary sinuses contain?
Reticular cells and macrophages
What causes Lynch syndrome?
- Mutation of DNA mismatch repair genes with subsequent microsatellite instability.Mutation in the genes MSH2 and MLH1 which code for components of the human MutS and MutL homologs.
What are the effects of Radiation therapy?
Causes apoptosis of tumors via free radical formation and dsDNA breakage.
What is the function of microglia?
- Microglia (derived from monocytes) move into area of ischemic infarct 3-5 days and they phagocytize fragments of neurons, myelin and debris.
- HIGH LIPID STAINING