Psych Exam 1 Ch:1-2

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jwhughes
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294099
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Psych Exam 1 Ch:1-2
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2015-01-28 13:39:28
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Ch. 1-2
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  1. What is a state of well-being in which each individual is able to realize his/her own potential, cope with the normal stresses of life, work productively, and make a contribution to the community?
    Mental health
  2. What is significant dysfunction related to developmental, biological, or psychological disturbances in mental functioning?
    Mental illness
  3. What is a 1.5 inch thick manual that classifies 157 separate disorders, states that there is evidence suggesting that the symptoms and causes of a number of disorders are influenced by cultural and ethnic factors
    Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5)
  4. What is associated with the process of adapting and helps people face tragedies, loss, trauma, and severe stress?
    resiliency
  5. What model assets that most psychiatric disorders result from a combination of genetic vulnerability and negative environmental stressors (nature vs nurture)
    Diathesis-stress model
  6. Name the 10 guiding principles of recovery
    • self-directed
    • pt-centered
    • empowering
    • holistic
    • nonlinear
    • strength-based
    • peer supported
    • respect
    • responsibility
    • hope
  7. Name the 5 goals of the Human Genome Project
    • Identify genes
    • Determine sequence
    • Store info
    • Improve tools
    • Address ethic/social/legal issues
  8. What 6 key areas of care does the QSEN promote
    • Pt-centered
    • teamwork/collaboration
    • EB practice
    • Quality improvement
    • Safety
    • Informatics
  9. What is the quantitative study of the distribution of mental disorders in human populations
    Epidemiology
  10. What is it called when there is more than one mental/physical illness at a time
    comorbid condition
  11. What is the number of new cases of mental disorders in a healthy population within a given period of time
    Incidence
  12. What is the total number of cases, both new and existing, in a given population within a given period of time?
    prevalence
  13. What are the two broad classifications created by ICD-9-CM
    • Psychosis
    • Neurotic disorders
  14. What is a comprehensive source of standardized outcomes, definitions of these outcomes, and measuring scales that help to determine the outcome of the intervention
    Nursing Outcome Classification
  15. What level of nursing allows the nurse to coordinate care, teach/maintain health, milieu therapy, and pharmacological/biological/integrative therapies
    Basic Level (RN)
  16. What level of nursing allows the nurse to prescribe medicine/treatment, psychotherapy, and consultation?
    Advanced Practice RN
  17. What is the sensitivity to different cultural views regarding health, illness, and response to treatment
    Cultural competence
  18. Who is the father of psychoanalysis
    Freud
  19. Who is the mother of psychiatric nursing
    Peplau
  20. What is the cathartic method
    Talk therapy
  21. What are Freud's levels of awareness
    • Conscious
    • Preconscious
    • Unconscious
  22. What part of the mind is considered the tip of the iceberg, it contains material a person is aware of at any one time?
    Conscious
  23. What part of the mind is just below the surface  which contains material that can be retrieved rather easily through conscious effort
    Preconscious
  24. What part of the mind includes all repressed memories, passions, and unacceptable urges lying deep below the surface?
    Unconscious
  25. Name Freud's personality structure
    • Id
    • Ego
    • Superego
  26. What personality structure is the force that drives all instincts, reflexes, needs, genetic inheritance, and capacity to respond, as well as the wishes that motives us (pleasure principle)
    Id
  27. When does Freud say the ego develops
    during the first few years of life when we begin to interact with others
  28. What personality structure is the problem solver and reality tester? It differeniates subjective experiences, memory images, and objective reality and attempts to negotiate with the outside world. (reality principle)
    Ego
  29. What personality structure represents the moral component of the personality? It represents the ideal rather than the real, seeks perfection rather than pleasure or reason.
    Superego
  30. What components doe the superego consist of?
    • conscious (should nots)
    • ego ideal (shoulds)
  31. What does the ego develop as a way to ward off anxiety by preventing conscious awareness of threatening feelings?
    Defense mechanisms
  32. Name two common features of defense mechanisms
    • They all (except suppression) operate on an unconscious level
    • They deny, falsify, or distort reality to make it less threatening
  33. How can knowing Freud's theory of conscious and unconscious benefit the nurse in practice?
    Allows them to identify and begin to think about root causes of patient suffering
  34. What are the two concepts of classical pyschoanalysis that is important for nurses to know?
    • transference
    • countertransference
  35. What are the feelings the patient has toward health care workers that were originally held toward significant others in his/her life?
    Transference
  36. What are unconscious feelings that the health care worker has toward the patient
    countertransference
  37. What therapy is more focused on the here and now as opposed to attempting to reconstruct the developmental origins of conflict?
    Psychodynamic Therapy
  38. Who are the best candidates for psychodynamic therapy
    Relatively healthy and well-functioning individuals who have a clearly circumscribed area of difficulty and are intelligent, psychologically minded and well motivated for change?
  39. Name Freud's 5 stages of psychosexual development
    • oral
    • anal
    • phallic
    • latency
    • genital
  40. What psychosexual stage falls between years 0-1?
    oral
  41. What is the primary conflict of oral psychosexual stage
    weaning
  42. What psychosexual stage falls between years 1-3 yrs
    Anal
  43. What is the primary conflict in the anal stage of psychosexual development
    toilet training
  44. What psychosexual stage falls between years 3-6?
    Phallic (oedipal)
  45. What psychosexual stage is described as the child aligning their sexual identity with the parent of the same sex
    Phallic
  46. What psychosexual stage falls between years 6-12
    Latency
  47. What psychosexual stage allows the child to relate to others outside the home?
    Latency
  48. What psychosexual stage falls 12 yrs and beyond?
    Genital
  49. What psychosexual stage has a development of sexual and emotional relationship; emancipation from parents?
    Genital
  50. What psychosexual stage begins the development of a sense of control over instinctual drives; can delay immediate gratification to gain a future goal?
    Anal
  51. Name Erikson's 8 stages of development
    • Trust vs Mistrust
    • Autonomy vs Shame/doubt
    • Initiative vs guilt
    • Industry vs inferiority
    • Identity vs role confusion
    • Intimacy vs isolation
    • Generativity vs self-absorption
    • Integrity vs despair
  52. What would the crisis be for a child ages 0-1.5 years old
    Trust vs mistrust
  53. What would the crisis be for a child ages 1.5-3 yrs old
    Autonomy vs shame and doubt
  54. What would the crisis be for a child ages 3-6 yrs old
    Initiative vs guilt
  55. What would the crisis be for a child ages 6-12 yrs old
    Industry vs inferiority
  56. What would the crisis be for a child ages 12-20 years old
    identity vs role confusion
  57. What would the crisis be for an adult ages 20-35
    Intimacy vs isolation
  58. What would the crisis be for an adult ages 35-65 yrs old
    Generativity vs self-absorption
  59. What would the crisis be for an adult 65 yrs to death
    Integrity vs despair
  60. Name two Psychoanalytical theorists
    • Freud
    • Erikson
  61. How does sullivan describe personality
    behavior that can be observed within interpersonal relationships
  62. What does Sullivan describe as any painful feeling or emotion that arises from social insecurity or prevents biological needs from being satisfied
    Anxiety
  63. What does Sullivan use to describe measures the individual employs to reduce anxiety and enhance security
    Security operations
  64. What do all of the security operations an individual uses to defend against anxiety and ensure self-esteem make up?
    Self-system
  65. What is an effective short-term therapy assumes that psychiatric disorders are influenced by interpersonal interactions and the social context.
    Interpersonal psychotherapy
  66. What type of therapy is a therapist using when they identify the nature of a problem to be resolved and then select strategies consistent with the problem area?
    Interpersonal psychotherapy
  67. Name four types of problems identified in interpersonal psychotherapy
    • Grief
    • Role dispute
    • Role transition
    • Interpersonal deficit
  68. Who viewed nursing as an educative instrument designed to help individuals and communities use their capacities to be more productive? Her theory is mainly concerned with the process by which the nurse helps patients make positive changes in their healthcare status and well-being.
    Peplau
  69. Name 5 behavior therapists
    • Pavlov
    • Watson
    • Skinner
    • Beck
    • Ellis
  70. What is it called when a neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired up with another stimulus?
    Classical conditioning
  71. Is classical conditioning voluntary or involuntary?
    Involuntary
  72. Who believed that personality traits and responses-adaptive or maladaptive-were socially learned through classical conditioning? In other words, controlling the person's environment could mold behavior and that anyone could be trained to be anything.
    Watson
  73. What is voluntary behaviors learned through consequences
    Operant conditioning
  74. What is reinforcement, name two types.
    Something that causes a behavior to occur more often, Positive and Negative
  75. What is an unpleasant consequence
    punishment
  76. What is the absence of reinforcement
    extinction
  77. Who was responsible for the idea of operant conditioning and reinforcement
    skinner
  78. What are the key things Peplau discovered?
    • Therapeutic use of self, empathy
    • Levels of anxiety (mild/moderate/severe/panic)
    • Therapeutic Milieu
    • Self-system and personal development
  79. What are the development of behavior tasks customized to meet the patient's specific fears
    Systematic desensitization
  80. What type of therapy is aimed to eradicate core irrational beliefs by helping people recognize thoughts that are not accurate, sensible, or useful?
    Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT)
  81. Who developed REBT?
    Ellis
  82. What is the ABC process Ellis uses to describe negative thoughts?
    • A: activating event
    • B: Beliefs
    • C: Emotional Consequence
  83. What does Ellis say influences all thoughts which in turn influence behavior
    perception
  84. What is an active, directed, time-limited, structured approach used to treat a variety of psychiatric disorders? These therapists are designed to identify, reality test, and correct distorted conceptualizations and the dysfunctional beliefs underlying them.
    Cognitive behavior therapy
  85. What does Beck describe as people's unique assumption about themselves, others, and the world in general
    Schemas
  86. What are rapid, unthinking responses based on schemas
    automatic thoughts
  87. Name the 6 components of Maslow's Hierarchy of needs from the most important to the least?
    • Physiological needs
    • Safety
    • Love/belonging
    • esteem
    • self-actualization
    • self-transcendence
  88. What was the first medication created to treat a psychiatric condition?
    chlorpromazine
  89. What therapy recognizes the people (pt and staff), setting, structure, and the emotional climate as all important to healing?
    Milieu therapy
  90. What is pairing of maladaptive behavior with a punishment or unpleasant stimuli to promote a change in behavior?
    Aversion therapy
  91. What is exposing a client, while in the company of a therapist, to a great deal of an undesirable stimulus in an attempt to turn off the anxiety response
    flooding
  92. What assists the client to identify negative thoughts that produce anxiety, examine the cause, and develop supportive ideas that replace negative self-talk
    Cognitive reframing
  93. What type of cognitive therapy teaches the clients to express feelings, and solve problems in a nonaggressive manner
    Assertiveness training
  94. What is the spontaneous, uncensored verbalization of whatever comes to the client's mind
    free association

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