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What is a state of well-being in which each individual is able to realize his/her own potential, cope with the normal stresses of life, work productively, and make a contribution to the community?
What is significant dysfunction related to developmental, biological, or psychological disturbances in mental functioning?
What is a 1.5 inch thick manual that classifies 157 separate disorders, states that there is evidence suggesting that the symptoms and causes of a number of disorders are influenced by cultural and ethnic factors
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5)
What is associated with the process of adapting and helps people face tragedies, loss, trauma, and severe stress?
What model assets that most psychiatric disorders result from a combination of genetic vulnerability and negative environmental stressors (nature vs nurture)
Name the 10 guiding principles of recovery
- peer supported
Name the 5 goals of the Human Genome Project
- Identify genes
- Determine sequence
- Store info
- Improve tools
- Address ethic/social/legal issues
What 6 key areas of care does the QSEN promote
- EB practice
- Quality improvement
What is the quantitative study of the distribution of mental disorders in human populations
What is it called when there is more than one mental/physical illness at a time
What is the number of new cases of mental disorders in a healthy population within a given period of time
What is the total number of cases, both new and existing, in a given population within a given period of time?
What are the two broad classifications created by ICD-9-CM
- Neurotic disorders
What is a comprehensive source of standardized outcomes, definitions of these outcomes, and measuring scales that help to determine the outcome of the intervention
Nursing Outcome Classification
What level of nursing allows the nurse to coordinate care, teach/maintain health, milieu therapy, and pharmacological/biological/integrative therapies
Basic Level (RN)
What level of nursing allows the nurse to prescribe medicine/treatment, psychotherapy, and consultation?
Advanced Practice RN
What is the sensitivity to different cultural views regarding health, illness, and response to treatment
Who is the father of psychoanalysis
Who is the mother of psychiatric nursing
What is the cathartic method
What are Freud's levels of awareness
What part of the mind is considered the tip of the iceberg, it contains material a person is aware of at any one time?
What part of the mind is just below the surface which contains material that can be retrieved rather easily through conscious effort
What part of the mind includes all repressed memories, passions, and unacceptable urges lying deep below the surface?
Name Freud's personality structure
What personality structure is the force that drives all instincts, reflexes, needs, genetic inheritance, and capacity to respond, as well as the wishes that motives us (pleasure principle)
When does Freud say the ego develops
during the first few years of life when we begin to interact with others
What personality structure is the problem solver and reality tester? It differeniates subjective experiences, memory images, and objective reality and attempts to negotiate with the outside world. (reality principle)
What personality structure represents the moral component of the personality? It represents the ideal rather than the real, seeks perfection rather than pleasure or reason.
What components doe the superego consist of?
- conscious (should nots)
- ego ideal (shoulds)
What does the ego develop as a way to ward off anxiety by preventing conscious awareness of threatening feelings?
Name two common features of defense mechanisms
- They all (except suppression) operate on an unconscious level
- They deny, falsify, or distort reality to make it less threatening
How can knowing Freud's theory of conscious and unconscious benefit the nurse in practice?
Allows them to identify and begin to think about root causes of patient suffering
What are the two concepts of classical pyschoanalysis that is important for nurses to know?
What are the feelings the patient has toward health care workers that were originally held toward significant others in his/her life?
What are unconscious feelings that the health care worker has toward the patient
What therapy is more focused on the here and now as opposed to attempting to reconstruct the developmental origins of conflict?
Who are the best candidates for psychodynamic therapy
Relatively healthy and well-functioning individuals who have a clearly circumscribed area of difficulty and are intelligent, psychologically minded and well motivated for change?
Name Freud's 5 stages of psychosexual development
What psychosexual stage falls between years 0-1?
What is the primary conflict of oral psychosexual stage
What psychosexual stage falls between years 1-3 yrs
What is the primary conflict in the anal stage of psychosexual development
What psychosexual stage falls between years 3-6?
What psychosexual stage is described as the child aligning their sexual identity with the parent of the same sex
What psychosexual stage falls between years 6-12
What psychosexual stage allows the child to relate to others outside the home?
What psychosexual stage falls 12 yrs and beyond?
What psychosexual stage has a development of sexual and emotional relationship; emancipation from parents?
What psychosexual stage begins the development of a sense of control over instinctual drives; can delay immediate gratification to gain a future goal?
Name Erikson's 8 stages of development
- Trust vs Mistrust
- Autonomy vs Shame/doubt
- Initiative vs guilt
- Industry vs inferiority
- Identity vs role confusion
- Intimacy vs isolation
- Generativity vs self-absorption
- Integrity vs despair
What would the crisis be for a child ages 0-1.5 years old
Trust vs mistrust
What would the crisis be for a child ages 1.5-3 yrs old
Autonomy vs shame and doubt
What would the crisis be for a child ages 3-6 yrs old
Initiative vs guilt
What would the crisis be for a child ages 6-12 yrs old
Industry vs inferiority
What would the crisis be for a child ages 12-20 years old
identity vs role confusion
What would the crisis be for an adult ages 20-35
Intimacy vs isolation
What would the crisis be for an adult ages 35-65 yrs old
Generativity vs self-absorption
What would the crisis be for an adult 65 yrs to death
Integrity vs despair
Name two Psychoanalytical theorists
How does sullivan describe personality
behavior that can be observed within interpersonal relationships
What does Sullivan describe as any painful feeling or emotion that arises from social insecurity or prevents biological needs from being satisfied
What does Sullivan use to describe measures the individual employs to reduce anxiety and enhance security
What do all of the security operations an individual uses to defend against anxiety and ensure self-esteem make up?
What is an effective short-term therapy assumes that psychiatric disorders are influenced by interpersonal interactions and the social context.
What type of therapy is a therapist using when they identify the nature of a problem to be resolved and then select strategies consistent with the problem area?
Name four types of problems identified in interpersonal psychotherapy
- Role dispute
- Role transition
- Interpersonal deficit
Who viewed nursing as an educative instrument designed to help individuals and communities use their capacities to be more productive? Her theory is mainly concerned with the process by which the nurse helps patients make positive changes in their healthcare status and well-being.
Name 5 behavior therapists
What is it called when a neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired up with another stimulus?
Is classical conditioning voluntary or involuntary?
Who believed that personality traits and responses-adaptive or maladaptive-were socially learned through classical conditioning? In other words, controlling the person's environment could mold behavior and that anyone could be trained to be anything.
What is voluntary behaviors learned through consequences
What is reinforcement, name two types.
Something that causes a behavior to occur more often, Positive and Negative
What is an unpleasant consequence
What is the absence of reinforcement
Who was responsible for the idea of operant conditioning and reinforcement
What are the key things Peplau discovered?
- Therapeutic use of self, empathy
- Levels of anxiety (mild/moderate/severe/panic)
- Therapeutic Milieu
- Self-system and personal development
What are the development of behavior tasks customized to meet the patient's specific fears
What type of therapy is aimed to eradicate core irrational beliefs by helping people recognize thoughts that are not accurate, sensible, or useful?
Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT)
Who developed REBT?
What is the ABC process Ellis uses to describe negative thoughts?
- A: activating event
- B: Beliefs
- C: Emotional Consequence
What does Ellis say influences all thoughts which in turn influence behavior
What is an active, directed, time-limited, structured approach used to treat a variety of psychiatric disorders? These therapists are designed to identify, reality test, and correct distorted conceptualizations and the dysfunctional beliefs underlying them.
Cognitive behavior therapy
What does Beck describe as people's unique assumption about themselves, others, and the world in general
What are rapid, unthinking responses based on schemas
Name the 6 components of Maslow's Hierarchy of needs from the most important to the least?
- Physiological needs
What was the first medication created to treat a psychiatric condition?
What therapy recognizes the people (pt and staff), setting, structure, and the emotional climate as all important to healing?
What is pairing of maladaptive behavior with a punishment or unpleasant stimuli to promote a change in behavior?
What is exposing a client, while in the company of a therapist, to a great deal of an undesirable stimulus in an attempt to turn off the anxiety response
What assists the client to identify negative thoughts that produce anxiety, examine the cause, and develop supportive ideas that replace negative self-talk
What type of cognitive therapy teaches the clients to express feelings, and solve problems in a nonaggressive manner
What is the spontaneous, uncensored verbalization of whatever comes to the client's mind