Unit 2 Skeletal System

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CoLinRadTechss
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Unit 2 Skeletal System
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2015-01-27 22:44:18
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Pathology
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Unit 2 Skeletal System
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  1. there are           bones in the body
    206
  2. there are          bones in the axial skeleton
    80
  3. there are           bones in the appendicular skeleton
    126
  4. functions of the skeletal system
    • body support
    • protection
    • movement
    • blood cell production
    • contains 98% of the body's total calcium
    • contains 75% fo the body's total phosphorus
  5. bone is a type of
    connective tissue
  6. two types of connective tissue
    • compact (dense)
    • cancellous (spongy, medullary canal contains bone marrow)
  7. intricate, web like, bony structure visible on a properly exposed radiograph
    bone marrow is located in between these
    trabeculae
  8. cancellous bone located within the skull
    diploe
  9. located in the bones of the trunk
    production of bone erythrocytes and leukocytes
    red bone marrow
  10. bone forming cells responsible for bone growth and thickening, ossification and regeneration
    located in the medullary canal and periosteum
    osteoblasts
  11. specialized cells that break down bone to enlarge the medullary canal and allow for bone growth
    osteoclasts
  12. production and break down of bone play an important role in                  and                      
    • serum calcium
    • phosphorus equilebrium
  13. classification of bones according to shape
    • long
    • short
    • flat
    • irregular
  14. shaft of a long bone
    diaphysis
  15. expanded end portion of bone
    epiphysis
  16. growth zone between the epiphysis and diaphysis
    metaphysis
  17. cartilaginous growth plate located betweeen the metaphysis and epiphysis of a growing child
    epiphyseal plate
  18. fibrous membrane that encloses all of the bone except the joint surfaces and is crucial to supplying blood to the under lying bone
    periosteum
  19. occurs when bone is not allowed to bear weight and results in significant decalcification and thinning of the bone
    disuse atrophy
  20. fibrous joints are
    synarthrodial
  21. cartilaginous joints are
    amphiarthrodial
  22. synovial joints are
    diarthrodial
  23. located on the ends of bones composing a synovial joint
    articular cartilage
  24. attach bone to bone
    ligament
  25. lined by a synovial membrane that secretes synovia
    joint capsule
  26. clues to skeletal diagnosis
    • soft tissue abnormalities
    • comparison of bone to other bone
    • interface between cortical bone and soft tissue
    • juxta-articular erosions close to a joint
    • internal bone structure
  27.            is the modality of choice for detection and staging of soft tissue tumors involving the extremities
    MRI
  28. advantage is the ability to look at the entire body at one time
    nucleur medicine
  29. use to evaluate osteoporosis
    bone densitomitry
  30.             show bone density by evaluating the bone mass of the distal radius, femoral neck, and lumbar spine
    • DEXA
    • double-energy xray absorbtiometry "bone mineral densitometry"
  31. a T score greater than -1.0 is
    normal
  32. a T score less than -1.0 but greater than -2.49 indicates
    osteopenia
  33. a T score less than -2.5 indicated
    osteoporosis
  34. formation of osseous tissue is deficiant and imperfect, leading to an abnormal fragility of bones
    present at birth
    • osetogenesis imperfecta
    • brittle bone disease
    • subtractive
  35. formation of osseous tissue is deficiant and imperfect, leading to an abnormal fragility of bones 
    occurs some years after birth
    osteogenesis imperfecta tarda
  36. most common inherited order of the skeletal system
    results in lumbar lordosis
    achondroplasia
  37. results in bone deformity and dwarfism.
    cartilage located in the epiphysis of the long bones does not convert to bone in the normal manner.
    achondroplasia
  38. increase in bone density and defective bone contour, often referred to as skeletal modeling
    bones are abnormally compact but brittle
    • osteopetrosis
    • marble bone
    • additive
  39. hardening of bone
    • osteosclerosis
    • additive
  40. results in abnormal or defective bone contour of the cranium and long bones
    • craniotubular dysplasias
    • subtractive
  41. abnormal development of tissues
    dysplasia
  42. excessive bone contour of the cranium and long bones
    most significant in extremities, vertebrae, pelvis and base of skull
    • craniotubular hyperostosis
    • additive
  43. benign skeletal anomaly that involves increased bone density in conjunction with fairly normal bone contour
    hereditary disorder
    • albers-schoonberg disease 
    • form of osteopetrosis
  44. failure of the fingers or toes to separate and the digits have a webbed appearance 
    occurs during fetal development
    syndactyly
  45. the presence of extra digits
    polydactyly
  46. congenital malformation of the foot that prevents normal weight bearing
    foot is turned inward
    • clubfoot
    • talipes
  47. incomplete malformation of the acetabulum
    head of femur displaced superiorly and posteriorly
    • congenital hip dislocation
    • DDH
    • Developmental dysplasia of the hip
  48. abnormal lateral curvature of the spine
    affects females more than males
    scoliosis
  49. an extra vertebrae that takes on the characteristics of both vertebrae on each side of a major division of the spine
    transitional vertebrae
  50. extra ribs most commonly occur at
    • L1
    • C7
  51. incomplete closure of the vertebral canal at the lamina
    • spina bifida
    • AP
  52. no visual abnormality in back or neurological deficit but demonstrated radiographically
    cord and nerves are normal
    • spina bifida occulata
    • AP
  53. protective coating come through the open part of the spine like a sac that is pushed out
    filled with cerebrospinal fluid
    no nerve damage
    spina bifida with meningocele
  54. meninges and spinal nerves come through the open part of the spine
    most serious type
    spina bifida with myelomeningocele
  55. premature or early closure of any of the cranial sutures
    affects brain growth
    craniosynostoses
  56. congenital abnormality in which the brain and cranial vault do not form but facial bones may still develop
    anencephaly
  57. an infection of the bone and bone marrow, most often caused by staphylococcus via bloodstream
    generally develops at the ends of long bones
    osteomyelitis
  58. most commonly affected sites of osteomyelitis in children
    • distal femur
    • proximal tibia
    • humerus
    • radius
  59. an infection in the bone and bone marrow caused by a pathologic microorganism
    bone necrosis occurs within 24 to 48 hours
    10 to 14 days after, it is radiographically noticable
    osteomyelitis acute
  60. characterized by extensive bone destruction with irregular, sclerotic reaction throughout the bone
    sequestrum and involucrum develop in late stage
    osteomyelitis chronic
  61. devascularized bone that appears very dense
    sequestrum
  62. a shell of new supporting bone laid down by the periosteum around the sequestrum
    involucrum
  63. chronic inflammatory disease of the bone
    most commonly effects the hip knee and spine
    ends of long bones have a worm eaten appearance
    slowly destroys the epiphysis spreads to articular cartilage and in some cases affecting the joint space
    • tuberculosis of the spine
    • pott's disease
    • destructive
  64. collective term to denote disorders of the joints including but not limited to arthritis, bursitis, tendonitis, tenosynovitis.
    arthropathy
  65. joint inflammation
    can be acute or chronic
    arthirits
  66. infection may enter through the skin, open wound or bacteria that causes inflammation of the joint
    infectious arthiritis
  67. clinical symptoms of acute bacterial infectious arthritis
    • sudden pain-dolor
    • redness- rubor
    • swelling-edema
    • fever-pyrexia
  68. inflammatory arthritis associated with psoriasis of the skin
    DIP joints of hands and feet
    ankylosis of the IP joints of hands and feet
    psoriatic arthritis 

    • early on=subtractive
    • after healing=additive
  69. SI joints, calcaneus and toes are generally affected
    variant of RA mostly in young males
    • Reiter's syndrome
    • "lovers heel"
  70. chronic, inflammatory, autoimmune component triggered by exposure of an immunogenetically susceptible host to an arthritogenic antigen
    chronic inflammation and overgrowth of synovial tissues 
    • rheumatoid arthritis 
    • destructive
  71. early on=soft tissue swelling, osteoporosis
    later on=cortical erosion with joint space narrowing
    joints become ankylosed
    RA
  72. younger than 16 at onset
    swelling or effusion in joints for at least six weeks
    aging decreases symptoms
    juvenille RA
  73. progressive form of arthritis mainly involving the spine in which joints and articulations become ankylosed
    especially in SI joints
    • ankylosing spondylitis
    • bamboo spine
    • additive
  74. bilateral narrowing and fuzziness of SI joints
    calcification of bones of the spine with ossification of vertebral ligaments
    ankylosing spondylitis
  75. most common form of arthritis 
    noninflammatory deterioration of the joint cartilage that occurs with normal aging
    distinguished by osteophytes (spurs)
    • osteoarthritis
    • degenerative joint disease-DJD
  76. attach muscle to bone
    tendon
  77. the sheath that encloses tendons becomes inflamed
    tenosynovitis
  78. cystic swelling that develops in connection with a tendon sheath, usually on the back of the wrist
    ganglion
  79. inflammation of the bursae
    • bursitis
    • doesn't show on xray until chronic and calcified
  80. sacs lined with a synovial membrane found in locations where tendons pass over a bony prominence
    bursae
  81. walls become thickened and contain calcium deposits
    chronic bursitis
  82. inflammation of soft tissue structures may be caused by
    • acute or chronic trauma
    • acute or chronic infection
    • inflammatory arthritis
    • gout
    • pyogenic or TB organisms
  83. metabolic disorder in which excess amounts of uric acid are produced and deposited in the joint and adjacent bone
    MP joint of great toe
    • gouty arthritis
    • destructive
  84. large masses of sodium urate crystalline deposits in joints
    tophi
  85. long term complication of gouty arthritis
    kidney stones
  86. radiographically visible decrease in bone density
    results from osteoporosis or osteomalacia
    osteopenia

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