u world

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u world
2015-03-01 00:24:22

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  1. cromolyn MOA
    inhibits mast cell degradation
  2. nedocromil MOA
    inhibits mast cell degradation
  3. Rb active and inactive form
    • active hypophosphorylate
    • inactive is hyperphosphorylate
  4. inherited disease caused by defective DNA repair 
    • 1- ataxia telangiectasia ( DNA hypersensitive to ionizing radiation) 
    • 2- Xeroderma pigmentosum (DNA HS to UV light) 
    • 3- Fanconi anemia ( HS of DNA to cross linking agents)
    • 4- Bloom syndrome ( gen. chromosomal instability)
    •  5- HNPCC ( DNA mismatch repair enzyme) 
  5. disinfectants
    Alcohol MOA
    • disruption of cell memb
    • Denaturation of proteins 
    • no sopricidal
  6. disinfectants
    • disruption of cell memb
    • Coagulation of cytoplasm
    • no sopricidal
  7. disinfectants
    • produces destructive free radicals tat oxidize cellular components 
    • Sporicidal
  8. disinfectants
    Halogenation of proteins and nucleic acids

  9. Eisenmenger syndrome 
    • characterized by elevated pulmonary vascular resistance and right-to-left shunting of blood through a systemic-to-pulmonary circulation connection.
    • The development of pulmonary hypertension and right-to-left shunting of blood, resulting in an increase in red blood cell due to chronic hypoxemia.
    • A) globus pallidus 
    • B) Putamen 
    • C) Internal capsule 
    • D) Caudate nucleus
    • E) Amygdala 
  10. Dystonia 
    a neurological movement disorder that produces a variety of abnormal movements in the body -involves sustained muscle contractions that cause twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal postures
  11. myoclonus 
    • A sudden, brief, shock-like involuntary movement caused by muscular contractions or inhibitions
    • example: physiologic: Hiccups and hypnic jerks. pathologic: epilepsy and CJ disease 
  12. mutation in the Kozak sequence of the beta-globin gene is associated w?
    thalassemia intermedia
  13. succinylcholine SE
    • -malignant hyperthermia (specially w halothane) in genetically susceptible pt.s.
    • -severe hyperkalemia in pt.s w burns, myopathies, crush injuries, & denervation
    • -bradycardia from parasympathetic stimulation or tachycardia from sympathetic ganglionic effects 
  14. osteocytes remain connected to each other by...
    Gap junction 
  15. retroperitoneum structures 
    major vessels?
    solid organs?
    hollow organs?
    • - abdominal aorta, IVC and branches 
    • - pancreas(except the tail) , kidneys, adrenal glands 
    • - part 2&3 and a portion of part 4 of the duodenum, the ascending and descending colon, rectum, ureters and bladder
    • - vertebral column and pelvic muscles  
  16. pt w osteoporosis treated with hormone replacement therapy containing estrogen and progesterone this can increase level of____
    • total T4 butt thyroid func remains normal 
    • TBG increases --> inc T4 level 
  17. common cause of myopathy
  18. biotin is necessary in what reaction 
    • acts as CO2 carrier on any carboxylase enzyme 
    • like: pyruvate to oxaloacetate (Pyruvate carboxylase) 
    • acetyl-CoA carboxylase, propionyl carboxylase, beta methylcrotonyl CoA carboxylase, 
  19. nitroprusside overdose tx
    sulfur/ sodium thiosulfate 
  20. meniere's disease ss and cause
    • tinnitus, vertigo, and sensorineural hearing loss 
    • increase volume and pressure of endolymph in the vestibular apparatus 
  21. septic shock and cachexia induced by
    • TNF-alpha
    • IL-1 and IL-6
  22. feature of hepatic encephalopathy 
    precipitating factors
  23. feature of hepatic encephalopathy 
  24. feature of hepatic encephalopathy 
    clinical presentation
  25. mitochondrial diseases are 
    • -Leber hereditary optic neuropathy
    • -myoclonic epilepsy 
    • -mitochondrial encephalopathy 
  26. mitochondrial diseases expansion variability is due to 
  27. Human multidrug resistant (MDR1) gene codes for P-glycoprotein, which is a 
    transmembrane ATP-dependent efflux pump protein that has abroad specificity for hydrophobic compounds. it reduce the influx and increase efflux --> prevents the action of chemotherapeutic agents 
  28. hyperammonemia and high orotic acid in urine is defect in 
    Ornithine transcarboamoylase 
  29. hyperammonemia w no orotic acid in urine defect is in 
    carbamoyl phosphate synthase or N-acetylglutamate synthase 
  30. in utero: failure of recanalization cause
    duodenal atrasia 
  31. in utero: improper rotation and fusion of GI cause 
    pancreas divisum (silent) or Annular pancreas ( can cause duodenal stenosis.  
  32. in utero: vascular occlusion can cause
    apple peel atresia, blind-ending 
  33. E-coli virulence factors (6)
  34. what are the major risk factor for adult ARDS?
    Sepsis and shock 
  35. hospitalized and severely ill pt w upper right abdominal//subcostal pain and fever 
    acute acalculous cholecystitis/ acute inflammation of the gallbladder in absence of stone 
  36. Sickle cell disease manifestations
    • 1) Hemolysis 
    • 2) vasoocclusive symptoms 
    • 3) Infections (due to asplenic)