USMLE6

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Author:
rere_girl4ever
ID:
294183
Filename:
USMLE6
Updated:
2015-02-03 08:49:21
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USMLE 23
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USMLE 23
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USMLE 23
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  1. What is Pulsus paradoxus?
    • A drop in systolic blood pressure by >10mmHg during inspiration
    • Seen in:
    • Cardiac tamponade
    • Asthma
    • Obstructive sleep apnea
    • Pericarditis 
    • Croup
  2. A drop in systolic pressure >10mmHg is referred to as?
    Pulsus paradoxus
  3. What are the structures of the foregut and which artery supplies it?
    • Celiac artery
    • Pharynx
    • Lower esophagus
    • Stomach
    • Proximal duodenum
    • Liver
    • Gallbladder
    • Pancreas
    • Spleen
  4. What are the structures of the midgut? It is supplied  by which artery?
    • Superior mesenteric artery
    • Distal duodenum
    • Jejunum
    • Ileum
    • Ascending colon
    • Proximal 2/3 of transverse colon
  5. What artery supplies the hindgut? What are structures supplied?
    • Inferior mesenteric artery
    • Distal 1/3 of transverse colon
    • Descending colon
    • Sigmoid colon
    • Upper portion of rectum
  6. How does the midgut rotate?
    The midgut returns to the abdominal cavity at the 10th week of life, simultaneously completing a 270 counterclockwise turn around the superior mesenteric artery.
  7. What causes obstruction in intestinal malrotation?
    • Intestinal obstruction usually occurs due to Ladd's bands, which are adhesive bands which attach the cecum to the abdominal wall and obstruct/ compress the duodenum. 
    • Bilious vomiting during first few days of life.
  8. What is a Pancreas divisum?
    • Ventral and dorsal pancreatic bulbs fail to fuse at 8 weeks
  9. Failure of the ventral and dorsal pancreatic bulbs to fuse at week 8 results in?
    Pancreas divisum
  10. During aerobic exercise, what are the changes in venous and arterial blood with respect to O2, CO2 and pH?
    • Homeostatic mechanisms maintain arterial O2 and CO2 contents and arterial pH near normal resting values. ARTERIAL BLOOD VALUES REMAIN NORMAL
    • However in venous blood↓O2, ↑CO2 and ↓pH
  11. What is the power of a study?
    • The ability of a study to detect a difference between groups when such a difference truly exists. 
    • Power = 1-β
    • Power is related to type II error (β) which is the probability of concluding there is no difference between groups when one truly exists. 
  12. The probability of stating that there is no difference between groups when one truly exists is known as?
    Type II β error
  13. The ability of a study to detect a difference between groups when such a difference truly exists is known as?
    Power (1-β)
  14. The probability of stating that there is a difference when none exists is known as a?
    Type I error(α)
  15. What is a type I error?
    The probability of stating that there is a difference when non exists.
  16. How does eosinophils defend against parasitic infections?
    • When a parasite enters a bloodstream, it is bound by free IgE. The resultant antibody complex then binds an IgE Fc receptor on the eosinophil surface. Upon binding, the eosinophil releases major basic protein and other enzymes that destroy the parasite. 
    • This mechanism is an example of Antibody Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity.
  17. Which cells rely on Antibody Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity?
    • Macrophages
    • Natural killer
    • Eosinophils 
  18. What mediates Type I hypersensitivity reactions?
    • Mast cells and basophils.
    • These cells possess Fc receptor-bound IgE on their membranes.
    • Antigen binding to more than one membrane-bound IgE (antibody CROSSLINKING) stimulates degranulation with release of histamine and bradykinin.
  19. Differentiate between the level of consciousness and onset of Delirium and Dementia.
    • Delirium: Fluctuating level of consciousness with acute onset.
    • Dementia: Gradual onset ↓ in intellectual function without affecting level of consciousness. 
  20. Describe a penetrating injury to the lung.
    • Left midclavicular line.
    • 0-7 intercostal space. 
  21. Describe a penetrating injury to the left ventricle.
    • Left midclavicular line
    • 4th intercostal space
  22. Describe a penetrating injury to the right ventricle.
    • Left sternal boarder
    • 4th intercostal space.
  23. Describe a penetrating injury to the pulmonary trunk.
    • Left sternal boarder
    • 2nd intercostal space
  24. This immunoflourescent is characteristic of this glomerular disease.
    • Goodpasture 
    • Linear IF
  25. This immunoflourescent image is characteristic of which glomerular disease?
    • Acute post streptococcal glomerulonephritis
    • Starry sky granular appearance ("lumpy-bumpy") due to IgG, IgM and C3 deposition)
  26. The immunoflourescent image is characteristic of which glomerular disease?
    • IgA nephropathy
    • IF→ IgA based immune complex deposits in mesangium
  27. This immunoflourescent image is diagnostic of which kidney pathology?haracteristic of this glomerular disease.
    • Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis
    • Granular IF
  28. This imunoflourescent image is diasgnostic of this glomerular pathology
    • Diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis
    • IF- granular
  29. In which diseases is basement membrane splitting seen in?
    • Alport syndrome
    • Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis
  30. Describe the cause and findings of Alport syndrome.
    • Mutation in type IV collagen → thinning and splitting of glomerular basement membrane
    • Eye problems:- retinopathy, lens dislocation
    • Sensorineural deafness
    • Glomerulonephritis
  31. This glomerular disease is characteristic of a mutation in type IV collagen.
    Alports syndrome

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